Treatment Component

Articles

Does practice make perfect? The relationship between self-reported treatment homework completion and parental skill acquisition and child behaviors (abstract)

Stokes, J. O., Jent, J. F., Weinstein, A., Davis, E. M., Brown, T. M., Cruz, L., & Wavering, H. (2016)

Parent training for children with or at risk for developmental delay: The role of parental homework completion (abstract)

Ros, R., Hernandez, J., Graziano, P. A., & Bagner, D. M. (2016)

Behavioral parent training skills and child behavior: The utility of behavioral descriptions and reflections (abstract)

Tempel, A. B., Wagner, S. M., & McNeil, C. B. (2013)

Differential attention as a mechanism of change in Parent—Child Interaction Therapy: Support from time-series analysis (abstract)

Pemberton, J. R., Borrego Jr, J., & Sherman, S. (2013)

Coaching parents to change: The impact of in vivo feedback on parents' acquisition of skills (abstract)

Shanley, J. R., & Niec, L. N. (2010)

Child-directed interaction: Prediction of change in impaired mother-child functioning (abstract)

Harwood, M. D., & Eyberg, S. M. (2006)

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Can a manualized treatment be functional? (abstract)

McNeil, C.B., Filcheck, H.A., Greco, L.A., Ware, L.M., & Bernard, R.S. (2001)

Types of verbal feedback that affect compliance and general behavior in disruptive and typical children (abstract)

Filcheck, H. A., McNeil, C. B., & Herschell, A. D. (2001)

Maintaining the treatment effects of parent training: The role of booster sessions and other maintenance strategies (abstract)

Eyberg, S. M., Edwards, D., Boggs, S. R., & Foote, R. (1998)

Empirical derivation of child compliance time (abstract)

Wruble, M. K., Sheeber, L. B., Sorensen, E. K., Boggs, S. R., & Eyberg, S. M. (1991)

Does practice make perfect? The relationship between self-reported treatment homework completion and parental skill acquisition and child behaviors

Stokes, J. O., Jent, J. F., Weinstein, A., Davis, E. M., Brown, T. M., Cruz, L., & Wavering, H. (2016). Does practice make perfect? The relationship between self-reported treatment homework completion and parental skill acquisition and child behaviors. Behavior Therapy, 47, 538-549,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2016.04.004

Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the rate and type of parent-reported homework completion is associated with parent-report of child behavior outcomes, number of sessions to master parental skills as measured by therapist observation, and length of treatment in Parent-child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Sixty-two parent-child dyads (primary caregiver: Male=36.35years, female 95.20%, 81.60% White, 59.57% Hispanic; child Male=4.22years; child gender male 64.50%) who completed PCIT were included in the study. A within-subjects hierarchical regression statistical design was used to examine the impact of parent report of homework completion on treatment processes and outcomes. A higher rate of self-reported homework completion was predictive of parental mastery of skill acquisition in fewer sessions and treatment completion in fewer sessions. Parent report of homework completion rate was not related to changes in child disruptive behavior after controlling for child behavior at baseline. Current study findings reinforce the importance of having parents regularly practice PCIT skills outside of session in order to decrease treatment length and facilitate the acquisition of parenting skills, which may reduce family burdens associated with attending a weekly treatment.


Keywords: PCIT; Parental Factors; Behavioral Parent Training; Homework Compliance; Parent Skill Acquisition. 

Article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0005789416300120?via%3Dihub

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Parent training for children with or at risk for developmental delay: The role of parental homework completion

Ros, R., Hernandez, J., Graziano, P. A., & Bagner, D. M. (2016). Parent training for children with or at risk for developmental delay: The role of parental homework completion. Behavior Therapy, 47, 1-13.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2015.08.004

Abstract: This study investigated the extent to which parental  homework completion during behavioral parent training   (BPT) for children with or at risk for developmental delay  contributed to parenting and child outcomes. Parents of 48  children (Mage = 44.17 months, SD = 14.29; 73% male;  72% White) with developmental delay (IQ b 75) or at risk  for developmental delay (due to premature birth) with  co-occurring clinically elevated externalizing behavior  problems received Parent-Child Interaction Therapy  (PCIT) as part of two previously completed randomized  controlled trials. Parental homework completion was  measured using parental report of home practice of  treatment skills collected weekly by therapists. Parents also  reported on child externalizing behavior problems and levels  of parenting stress, while parenting skills were observed during  a 5-min child directed play and child compliance was observed  during a 5-min cleanup situation. Results indicated that higher  rates of parental homework completion predicted parenting  outcomes (i.e., increased positive parenting skills and decreased  levels of parenting stress) and child outcomes (i.e.,  lower levels of externalizing behavior problems). Additionally,  although limited by temporal precedence, there was an indirect  effect of reductions in parenting stress on the negative  association between parental homework completion and  child externalizing behavior problems. These findings highlight  the importance of parents practicing skills learned during  BPT for optimizing treatment outcome. Parenting stress was  also identified as a potential mechanism by which high levels of  parental homework completion contributed to reductions in  child externalizing behavior problems.  


Keywords: PCIT; Parental Factors; Homework; Externalizing Behavior Problems; Developmental Delay; Parenting Stress; Clinical Disorder – Externalizing. 

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26763493/

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Behavioral parent training skills and child behavior: The utility of behavioral descriptions and reflections

Tempel, A. B., Wagner, S. M., & McNeil, C. B. (2013). Behavioral parent training skills and child behavior: The utility of behavioral descriptions and reflections. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 35, 25-40.
https://doi.org/10.1080/07317107.2013.761009

Abstract: Empirical examination of components of behavioral parent training programs is necessary to inform treatment effectiveness and efficiency; however, comprehensive research on many components is lacking. The current study examined two parenting components utilized in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy by investigating the effects of behavioral descriptions on on-task behavior and the effects of reflections on descriptive speech. Twenty six parent-child dyads, with a child age 3–5, completed five parental-skill conditions. Results suggest that combined skills increased child on-task behavior more than other conditions; and that behavioral description alone increased on-task behavior more than questions. Furthermore, parental questions increased descriptive speech more than other forms of parental attention. These findings provide preliminary support for the utility of specific types of parental attention.


Keywords: PCIT, behavioral parent training, components, externalizing, parenting

Article: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07317107.2013.761009

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Differential attention as a mechanism of change in Parent—Child Interaction Therapy: Support from time-series analysis

Pemberton, J. R., Borrego Jr, J., & Sherman, S. (2013). Differential attention as a mechanism of change in Parent—Child Interaction Therapy: Support from time-series analysis. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 35, 35-44.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-012-9312-7

Abstract: Although many interventions address children’s externalizing behavior problems, negative treatment outcomes remain common. Reasons for success or failure are frequently unclear, due in part to a lack of research identifying treatment change mechanisms. The current study evaluated differential attention as a mechanism of change in Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), a treatment for children with externalizing problems. Using sequential coding and time-series analysis, we examined parent–child interactions across treatment for three families. Contrary to hypotheses, child prosocial behaviors and parent skill use held steady or decreased across coaching periods, with the exception of one family, where the parent’s skill use increased during coaching. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that parent differential attention would predict child prosocial behavior in the next minute. These results provide support for differential attention as a mechanism of change, but also demonstrate that this factor is not the only such mechanism.


Keywords: PCIT; Parental Factors; Parenting; Child Externalizing Disorders; Treatment; Time-series Analysis.

Article: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10862-012-9312-7

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Coaching parents to change: The impact of in vivo feedback on parents' acquisition of skills

Shanley, J. R., & Niec, L. N. (2010). Coaching parents to change: The impact of in vivo feedback on parents' acquisition of skills. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 39, 282-287.
https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410903532627

Abstract: Behavioral parent training (BPT) includes a variety of evidence-based treatments with diverse techniques to alter parent behavior. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy is an innovative BPT with its use of in vivo feedback (i.e., "coaching") during parent-child interactions. An experimental design was used to assess whether coaching without elaborate didactic improves parenting. Sixty mothers with children 2 to 7 years old were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to a coaching or no coaching group. After a baseline assessment, all dyads participated in two play interactions 1 week apart during which parents in the coaching group were provided with in vivo feedback. Coached parents displayed significant improvements in skills, and coaching predicted skill gains beyond the influence of baseline ability. Findings suggest that providing parents with feedback through in vivo coaching is an important mechanism of change.


Keywords: PCIT; Parental Factors.

Article: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15374410903532627

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Child-directed interaction: Prediction of change in impaired mother-child functioning

Harwood, M. D., & Eyberg, S. M. (2006). Child-directed interaction: Prediction of change in impaired mother-child functioning. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 335-47.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-006-9025-z

Abstract: The first phase of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), called child-directed interaction, teaches parents to use positive and differential social attention to improve the parent-child relationship. This study examined predictors of change in mother and child functioning during the child-directed interaction for 100 mother-child dyads. The children were 3-6-years-old and diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder. After establishing that significant improvements occurred in mother report of child disruptive behavior, parenting stress, and parenting practices, these three variables were combined to form a latent impaired mother-child functioning construct. Structural equation models were examined using maternal demographic and psychosocial variables as predictors of impaired mother-child functioning before and after the child-directed interaction. Mothers' self-reported daily hassles and depressive symptomatology predicted 74% of variance in impaired mother-child functioning before treatment. Mothers' report of social support predicted impaired mother-child functioning after the child-directed interaction, with 57% of the variance accounted for in this longitudinal model. These findings suggest the importance of improving maternal social support during the initial phase of PCIT.


Keywords: PCIT; Clinical Disorders; Oppositional Defiant Disorders; Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders; Child; Humans; Interpersonal Relations; Mother-Child Relations; Mothers; Parenting; Prospective Studies; Psychotherapy; Social Support; Stress, Psychological; Surveys and Questionnaires; Treatment Outcome.

Article: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10802-006-9025-z

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Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Can a manualized treatment be functional?

McNeil, C.B., Filcheck, H.A., Greco, L.A., Ware, L.M., & Bernard, R.S. (2001). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Can a manualized treatment be functional? The Behavior Analyst Today, 2, 106-113.
https://doi.org/10.1037/h0099925

Abstract: In light of the persistent nature of conduct problem  behavior in children, and its enormous cost to families  and society, the importance of developing effective interventions  that foster lasting changes is discussed.  Parent-management training (PMT) and studies of its  associated long-term gains are reviewed. Although  studies have demonstrated short-term gains for PMT,  evidence for the long-term maintenance of treatment  gains is limited. Strategies designed to promote the  maintenance of treatment gains are drawn from both  the adult and child treatment liierature and applied to  parent training. The need to reduce dropout and to  examine the content and timing of booster sessions  using randomized control group designs is emphasized.  Future research must address the course of children’s  conduct problem behaviors, as well as the behaviors of  parents and others (e.g., peers, teachers) who influence  the child following treatment.


Keywords: PCIT; Behavioral Analysis; Family Therapy; Treatment. 

Article: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/26455604_Parent-child_interaction_therapy_Can_a_manualized_treatment_be_functional

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Types of verbal feedback that affect compliance and general behavior in disruptive and typical children

Filcheck, H. A., McNeil, C. B., & Herschell, A. D. (2001). Types of verbal feedback that affect compliance and general behavior in disruptive and typical children. Child Study Journal, 31(4), 225–248.

Abstract: Examined the effects of enthusiastic praise, nonenthusiastic praise, and nonenthusiastic description on child compliance (measured by the Compliance Test) and general behavior (measured by the Marble-in-the-Hole Game) in 15 children with disruptive behavior problems and 15 typical children (aged 3-5 yrs). Results indicate that the participants had significantly higher rates of compliance in the nonenthusiastic description condition than in the enthusiastic praise condition across groups. In addition, participants had significantly higher rates of general behavior in the enthusiastic praise condition than in the nonenthusiastic description condition across groups. Results are discussed with regard to the effectiveness of the different types of verbal feedback used in different situations. A list of definitions, the response statements for the Compliance Test and response statements for the Marble-in-the-Hole Game are appended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)


Keywords: PCIT

Article: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2002-01943-002

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Maintaining the treatment effects of parent training: The role of booster sessions and other maintenance strategies

Eyberg, S. M., Edwards, D., Boggs, S. R., & Foote, R. (1998). Maintaining the treatment effects of parent training: The role of booster sessions and other maintenance strategies. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 5, 544-554.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2850.1998.tb00173.x  

Abstract: In light of the persistent nature of conduct problem  behavior in children, and its enormous cost to families  and society, the importance of developing effective interventions  that foster lasting changes is discussed.  Parent-management training (PMT) and studies of its  associated long-term gains are reviewed. Although  studies have demonstrated short-term gains for PMT,  evidence for the long-term maintenance of treatment  gains is limited. Strategies designed to promote the  maintenance of treatment gains are drawn from both  the adult and child treatment liierature and applied to  parent training. The need to reduce dropout and to  examine the content and timing of booster sessions  using randomized control group designs is emphasized.  Future research must address the course of children’s  conduct problem behaviors, as well as the behaviors of  parents and others (e.g., peers, teachers) who influence  the child following treatment.


Keywords: PCIT; General Outcome Studies; Clinical Disorders; Conduct Disorder; Long-term Maintenance; Parent Training; Treatment Outcome; Conduct Problems; Children.

Article: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-2850.1998.tb00173.x

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Empirical derivation of child compliance time

Wruble, M. K., Sheeber, L. B., Sorensen, E. K., Boggs, S. R., & Eyberg, S. M. (1991). Empirical derivation of child compliance time. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 13, 57-68.
https://doi.org/10.1300/J019v13n01_04

Abstract: Assessment of child compliance has been characterized by the use of rationally-derived rather than empirically-derived compliance criteria and compliance times. In this study compliance times were derived empirically by coding videotapes of 15 nonreferred preschool children and their mothers during two standard observation conditions. The results suggest that 85% of the time these children began to comply within 5.4 seconds of a parental command. The average conditional probability of completing compliance given beginning compliance was .73. Compliance time was not significantly different as a function of observation condition or command type. Direct commands were, however, observed to influence positively the likelihood of compliance. The importance of empirically deriving compliance times for the particular observation system used as well as assessing the influence of command type and contextual factors was discussed.


Keywords: PCIT; Dyadic Parent Child Interaction Coding System; Noncompliance; Child Compliance; Preschool; Empirically Deriving Compliance. 

Article: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J019v13n01_04

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