Population-Specific

Adaptation Articles

 

Infant Studies

Infant Language Production and Parenting Skills: A Randomized Controlled Trial (abstract)

Garcia, D., Rodriquez, G. M., Hill, R. M., Lorenzo, N. E., & Bagner, D. M. (2019).

Behavioral Parent Training in Infancy: What About the Parent–Infant Relationship? (abstract)

Blizzard, A. M., Barroso, N. E., Ramos, F. G., Graziano, P. A., & Bagner, D. M. (2018).

Response-based sleep intervention: Helping infants sleep without making them cry (abstract)

Middlemiss, W., Stevens, H., Ridgway, L., McDonald, S., & Koussa, M. (2017).

Behavioral parent training in infancy: What about the parent-infant relationship? (abstract)

Blizzard, A. M., Barroso, N. E., Ramos, F. G., Graziano, P. A., & Bagner, D. M. (2017)

Behavioral parent training in infancy: A window of opportunity for high-risk families (abstract)

Bagner, D. M., Coxe, S., Hungerford, G. M., Garcia, D., Barroso, N. E., Hernandez, J., & Rosa-Olivares, J. (2016)

Direct and indirect effects of behavioral parent training on infant language production (abstract)

Bagner, D. M., Garcia, D., & Hill, R. (2016)

Home-based preventive parenting intervention for at-risk infants and their families: An open trial (abstract)

Bagner, D. M., Rodríguez, G. M., Blake, C. A., & Rosa-Olivares, J. (2013) 

 

Toddler Studies

Impact of a Brief Group Intervention to Enhance Parenting and the Home Learning Environment for Children Aged 6-36 Months: a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial (abstract)

Hackworth, N., Berthelsen, D., Matthews, J., Westrupp, E., Cann, W., Ukoumunne, O., Bennetts, S., Phan, T., Scicluna, A., Trajanovska, M., Yu, M., Nicholson, J., Hackworth, N. J., Westrupp, E. M., Ukoumunne, O. C., Bennetts, S. K., & Nicholson, J. M. (2017).

Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers’ eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach (abstract)

Van der Horst, K., & Sleddens, E. F. C. (2017).

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for toddlers: A pilot study (abstract)

Kohlhoff, J., & Morgan, S. (2014)

Parent-Child Attunement Therapy for toddlers: A behaviorally oriented, play-based parent training model (abstract)

Dombrowski, S. C., Timmer, S. G., & Zebell, N. (2008)

A positive behavioural intervention for toddlers: Parent-Child Attunement Therapy (abstract)

Dombrowski, S. C., Timmer, S. G., Blacker, D. M., & Urquiza, A. J. (2005)

 

Physical and Medical Conditions

Development of the Impact of a Preschool Obesity Prevention Intervention Enhanced With Positive Behavioral Supports for Mississippi Head Start Centers. (abstract)

Huye, H. F., Connell, C. L., Dufrene, B. A., Mohn, R. S., Newkirk, C., Tannehill, J., & Sutton, V. (2020). 

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy as a Behavior and Spoken Language Intervention for Young Children With Hearing Loss. (abstract)

Costa, E. A., Day, L., Caverly, C., Mellon, N., Ouellette, M., & Ottley, S. W. (2019). 

NP31 Development of the Family Meal Project: A Family Nutrition Ecosystem Intervention to Prevent Childhood Overweight/Obesity (abstract)

Frazier, S., Campa, A., & Coccia, C. (2019).

Efficacy of parent-child interaction therapy on anxiety symptoms in cochlear implanted deaf children. (abstract)

Javadi, N., Keshavarzi, A. F., & Hasanzadeh, S. (2018).

Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for deaf families that communicate via American Sign Language: A formal adaptation approach (abstract)

Day, L. A., Costa, E. A., Previ, D., & Caverly, C. (2017)

Assessing the effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with language delayed children: A clinical investigation (abstract)

Falkus, G., Tilley, C., Thomas, C., Hockey, H., Kennedy, A., Arnold, T., Thorburn, B., Jones, K., Patel, B., Piments, C., Shah, R., Tweedie, F., O'Brien, F., Leahy, R., & Pring, T. (2016) 

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and moderate pediatric traumatic brain injury: A case study (abstract)

Garcia, D., Barroso, N. E., Kuluz, J., & Bagner, D. M. (2016)

The practical side of working with Parent–Child Interaction Therapy with preschool children with language impairments (abstract)

Klatte, L.S., & Roulstone, S. (2016)

Combining Parent–Child Interaction Therapy and visual supports for the treatment of challenging behavior in a child with autism and intellectual disabilities and comorbid epilepsy (abstract)

Armstrong, K., DeLoatche, K. J., Preece, K. K. & Agazzi, H. (2015)

Language production in children with and at risk for delay: Mediating role of parenting skills (abstract)

Garcia, D., Bagner, D. M., Pruden, S. M., & Nichols-Lopez, K. (2015)

Parent–Child Interaction Therapy with deaf parents and their hearing child: A case study (abstract)

Armstrong, K., David, A., & Goldberg, K. (2014)

Parent training for children born premature: A pilot study examining the moderating role of emotion regulation (abstract)

Rodríguez, G. M., Bagner, D. M., & Graziano, P. A. (2014)

Evidence-based intervention for young children born premature: Preliminary evidence for associated changes in physiological regulation (abstract)

Graziano, P. A., Bagner, D. M., Sheinkopf, S. J., Vohr, B. R., & Lester, B. M. (2013)

Parent–Child Interaction Therapy with a deaf and hard of hearing family (abstract)

Shinn, M. M. (2013)

An initial investigation of baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a moderator of treatment outcome for young children born premature with externalizing behavior problems (abstract)

Bagner, D. M., Graziano, P. A., Jaccard, J., Sheinkopf, S. J., Vohr, B. R., & Lester, B. M. (2012)

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy as a family-oriented approach to behavioral management following psychiatric traumatic brain injury: A case report. (abstract)

Cohen, M. L., Heaton, S. C., Ginn, N., & Eyberg, S. M. (2012)

Klinefelter's syndrome in a 5-year-old boy with behavioral disturbances and seizures (abstract)

Jensen, E., Palacios, E., & Drury, S. (2011)

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in school-aged children with specific language impairment (abstract)

Allen, J., & Marshall, C. R. (2011)

Parenting intervention for externalizing behavior problems in children born premature: An initial examination (abstract)

Bagner, D. M., Sheinkopf, S. J., Vohr, B. R., & Lester, B. M. (2010)

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for children born premature: A case study and illustration of vagal tones as a physiological measure of treatment outcome (abstract)

Bagner, D. M., Sheinkopf, S. J., Miller-Loncar, C. L., Vohr, B. R., Hinckley, M., Eyberg, S. M., & Lester, B. M. (2009)

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and chronic illness: A case study (abstract)   

Bagner, D. M., Fernandez, M. A., & Eyberg, S. M. (2004)

Parent-Child Interaction Training for parents with a history of mental retardation (abstract)

Peterson, S. L., Robinson, E. A., & Littman, I. (1983)

 

Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT) &

School-Related Research Articles

Universal TCIT Improves Teacher–Child Interactions and Management of Child Behavior. (abstract)

Fawley, K. D., Stokes, T. F., Rainear, C. A., Rossi, J. L., & Budd, K. S. (2020).

Collaborating with public school partners to implement Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT) as universal prevention (abstract)

Budd, K. S., Barbacz, L. L., & Carter, J. S. (2015)

From the clinics to the classrooms: A review of Teacher-Child Interaction Training in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention settings (abstract)

Fernandez, M. A., Gold, D. C., Hirsch, E., & Miller, S. P. (2015)

Teacher-Child Interaction Training: A pilot study with random assignment (abstract)

Fernandez, M. A. (2015)

Promoting positive interactions in the classroom: Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy as a universal prevention program (abstract)

Gershenson, R. A., Lyon, A. R., & Budd, K. S. (2010)

Effectiveness of Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT) in a preschool setting (abstract)

Lyon, A. R., Gershenson, R. A., Farahmand, F. K., Thaxter, P. J., Behling, S., & Budd, K. S. (2009)

Managing classroom behavior of Head Start children using response cost and token economy procedures (abstract)

Tiano, J. D., Fortson, B. L., McNeil, C. B., & Humphreys, L. A. (2005)

Training Head Start teachers in behavior management using Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A preliminary investigation (abstract)

Tiano, J.D., & McNeil, C.B. (2005)

Psychometric properties of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory with rural middle school and high school children (abstract)

Floyd, E. M., Rayfield, A., Eyberg, S. M., & Riley, J. L. (2004)

The use of token economies in preschool classrooms: Practical and philosophical concerns (abstract)

Filcheck, H. A., & McNeil, C. B. (2004)

Using a whole-class token economy and coaching of teacher skills in a preschool classroom to manage disruptive behavior (abstract)

Filcheck, H. A., McNeil, C. B., Greco, L. A., & Bernard, R. S. (2004)

Psychometric properties of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised with preschool children (abstract)

Querido, J. G., & Eyberg, S. M. (2003)

Psychometric properties and reference point data for the Revised Edition of the School Observation Coding System (abstract)

Jacobs, J. R., Boggs, S. R., Eyberg, S. M., Edwards, D., Durning, P., Querido, J. G., McNeil, C. B., & Funderburk, B. W. (2000)

Parent-child interaction therapy with behavior problem children: Maintenance of treatment effects in the school setting (abstract)

Funderburk, B. W., Eyberg, S. M., Newcomb, K., McNeil, C., Hembree-Kigin, T., & Capage, L. (1998)

Revision of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory: Teacher ratings of conduct problem behavior (abstract)

Rayfield, A., Eyberg, S. M., & Foote, R. (1998)

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with behavior problem children: Generalization of treatment effects to the school setting (abstract)

Funderburk, B., Newcomb, K., McNeil, C. B., Eyberg, S., & Eisenstadt, T. H. (1991)

Further psychometric evaluation of the Eyberg Behavior Rating scales for parents and teachers of preschoolers (abstract)

Funderburk, B. W., & Eyberg, S. M. (1989)

Psychometric characteristics of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventor: A school behavior rating scale for use with preschool children (abstract)

Funderburk, B. W., & Eyberg, S. M. (1989)

 

Military Families

Kids at the VA? A call for evidence-based parenting interventions for returning veterans (abstract)

Pemberton, J. R., Kramer, T. L., Borrego, J., & Owen, R. R. (2013)

Infant Language Production and Parenting Skills: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Garcia, D., Rodriquez, G. M., Hill, R. M., Lorenzo, N. E., & Bagner, D. M. (2019). Infant Language Production and Parenting Skills: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Behavior Therapy, 50(3), 544–557. 10.1016/j.beth.2018.09.003

 

Abstract: The current study examined the indirect effect of the use of behavioral parenting skills following the Infant Behavior Program, a brief, home-based adaptation of the child-directed interaction phase of parent-child interaction therapy, on infant language production. Participants were 60 infants (55% male, mean age 13.47 ± 1.31 months) and their caregivers, who were recruited at a large urban pediatric primary care clinic and were included if their scores exceeded the 75th percentile on a brief screener of early behavior problems. Families were randomly assigned to receive the infant behavior program or standard pediatric primary care. Results demonstrated a significant indirect effect of caregivers' use of positive parenting skills (i.e., praise, reflections, and behavior descriptions) on the relation between group and infant total utterances at the 6-month follow-up, such that infants whose caregivers increased their use of positive parenting skills following the intervention showed greater increases in language production. These findings extend previous research examining parenting skills as a mechanism of change in infant language production, and highlight the potential for an early parenting intervention to target behavior and language simultaneously during a critical period in language development.

Keywords: Behavior problems; Infancy; Language production; Parent–child interaction therapy; Parenting skills.

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31030872/

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Behavioral Parent Training in Infancy: What About the Parent-Infant Relationship?

Blizzard, A. M., Barroso, N. E., Ramos, F. G., Graziano, P. A., & Bagner, D. M. (2018). Behavioral Parent Training in Infancy: What About the Parent-Infant Relationship? Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 47, S341–S353. 10.1080/15374416.2017.1310045

 

Abstract: Behavioral parent training (BPT) and attachment interventions have demonstrated efficacy in improving outcomes for young children. Despite theoretical overlap in these approaches, the literature has evolved separately, particularly with respect to outcome measurement in BPT. We examined the impact of the Infant Behavior Program (IBP), a brief home-based adaptation of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy, on changes in attachment-based caregiving behaviors (sensitivity, warmth, and intrusiveness) at postintervention and 3- and 6-month follow-ups during a videotaped infant-led play. Sixty mother–infant dyads were randomly assigned to receive the IBP (n = 28) or standard care (n = 30). Infants were an average age of 13.52 months and predominately from ethnic or racial minority backgrounds (98%). We used bivariate correlations to examine the association between attachment-based caregiving behaviors and behaviorally based parenting do and don’t skills and structural equation modeling to examine the direct effect of the IBP on attachment-based caregiving behaviors and the indirect effect of behaviorally based parenting skills on the relation between intervention group and attachment-based caregiving behaviors. Behaviorally based parenting do and don’t skills were moderately correlated with attachment-based caregiving behaviors. Results demonstrated a direct effect of the IBP on warmth and sensitivity at postintervention and 3- and 6-month follow-ups. The direct effect of the IBP on warmth and sensitivity at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups was mediated by increases in parenting do skills at postintervention. Findings suggest that behaviorally based parenting skills targeted in BPT programs have a broader impact on important attachment-based caregiving behaviors during the critical developmental transition from infancy to toddlerhood.

Keywords: Parenting Stress Index; Parenting education; Parent-child relationships; Attachment behavior;  Developmental psychology.

Article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705575/

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Response-based sleep intervention: Helping infants sleep without making them cry

Middlemiss, W., Stevens, H., Ridgway, L., McDonald, S., & Koussa, M. (2017). Response-based sleep intervention: Helping infants sleep without making them cry. Early Human Development, 108, 49–57. 

10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2017.03.008

 

Keywords: Sleep in infants; Infants care; Hydrocortisone; Parent-child interaction therapy; Well-being.

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28426979/

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Behavioral parent training in infancy: What about the parent-infant relationship?

Blizzard, A. M., Barroso, N. E., Ramos, F. G., Graziano, P. A., & Bagner, D. M. (2017). Behavioral parent training in infancy: What about the parent-infant relationship? Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 1-13.  
https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2017.1310045

Abstract: Behavioral parent training (BPT) and attachment interventions have demonstrated efficacy in improving outcomes for young children. Despite theoretical overlap in these approaches, the literature has evolved separately, particularly with respect to outcome measurement in BPT. We examined the impact of the Infant Behavior Program (IBP), a brief home-based adaptation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy, on changes in attachment-based caregiving behaviors (sensitivity, warmth, and intrusiveness) at postintervention and 3- and 6-month follow-ups during a videotaped infant-led play. Sixty mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to receive the IBP (n = 28) or standard care (n = 30). Infants were an average age of 13.52 months and predominately from ethnic or racial minority backgrounds (98%). We used bivariate correlations to examine the association between attachment-based caregiving behaviors and behaviorally based parenting do and don't skills and structural equation modeling to examine the direct effect of the IBP on attachment-based caregiving behaviors and the indirect effect of behaviorally based parenting skills on the relation between intervention group and attachment-based caregiving behaviors. Behaviorally based parenting do and don't skills were moderately correlated with attachment-based caregiving behaviors. Results demonstrated a direct effect of the IBP on warmth and sensitivity at postintervention and 3- and 6-month follow-ups. The direct effect of the IBP on warmth and sensitivity at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups was mediated by increases in parenting do skills at postintervention. Findings suggest that behaviorally based parenting skills targeted in BPT programs have a broader impact on important attachment-based caregiving behaviors during the critical developmental transition from infancy to toddlerhood.


Keywords: PCIT; Infant Studies. 

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28414546/

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Behavioral parent training in infancy: A window of opportunity for high-risk families

Bagner, D. M., Coxe, S., Hungerford, G. M., Garcia, D., Barroso, N. E., Hernandez, J., & Rosa-Olivares, J. (2016). Behavioral parent training in infancy: A window of opportunity for high-risk families. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44, 901-912.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-0089-5

Abstract: To meet the mental health needs of infants from high-risk families, we examined the effect of a brief home-based adaptation of Parent-child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) on improvements in infant and parent behaviors and reductions in parenting stress. Participants included 60 infants (55 % male; average age of 13.5 ± 1.31 months) who were recruited at a large urban primary care clinic and were included if their scores exceeded the 75th percentile on a brief screener of early behavior problems. Most infants were from an ethnic or racial minority background (98 %) and lived below the poverty line (60 %). Families were randomly assigned to receive the home-based parenting intervention or standard pediatric primary care. Observational and parent-report measures of infant and parenting behaviors were examined at pre- and post-intervention and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Infants receiving the intervention were more compliant with maternal commands at the 6-month follow-up and displayed lower levels of externalizing and internalizing behavior problems across post and follow-up assessments compared to infants in standard care. Mothers receiving the intervention displayed a significantly higher proportion of positive and lower proportion of negative behaviors with their infant during play compared to mothers in the standard care group. There were no significant group differences for parenting stress. Results provide initial evidence for the efficacy of this brief and home-based adaptation of PCIT for infants. These findings highlight the benefit of identification and intervention as early as possible to promote mental health for infants from high-risk families.


Keywords: PCIT; Infant Studies; Infancy; Behavior Problems; Parent Training; Early Intervention; Risk.

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26446726/

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Direct and indirect effects of behavioral parent training on infant language production

Bagner, D. M., Garcia, D., & Hill, R. (2016). Direct and indirect effects of behavioral parent training on infant language production. Behavior Therapy, 47, 184-197.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2015.11.001

Abstract: Given the strong association between early behavior problems and language impairment, we examined the effect of a brief home-based adaptation of Parent-child Interaction Therapy on infant language production. Sixty infants (55% male; mean age 13.47±1.31 months) were recruited at a large urban primary care clinic and were included if their scores exceeded the 75th percentile on a brief screener of early behavior problems. Families were randomly assigned to receive the home-based parenting intervention or standard pediatric primary care. The observed number of infant total (i.e., token) and different (i.e., type) utterances spoken during an observation of an infant-led play and a parent-report measure of infant externalizing behavior problems were examined at pre- and post-intervention and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Infants receiving the intervention demonstrated a significantly higher number of observed different and total utterances at the 6-month follow-up compared to infants in standard care. Furthermore, there was an indirect effect of the intervention on infant language production, such that the intervention led to decreases in infant externalizing behavior problems from pre- to post-intervention, which, in turn, led to increases in infant different utterances at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups and total utterances at the 6-month follow-up. Results provide initial evidence for the effect of this brief and home-based intervention on infant language production, including the indirect effect of the intervention on infant language through improvements in infant behavior, highlighting the importance of targeting behavior problems in early intervention.


Keywords: PCIT; Infant Studies; Language Production; Infancy; Behavior Problems; Parenting; Early Intervention. 

Article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0005789415001203?via%3Dihub

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Home-Based Preventive Parenting Intervention for at-Risk Infants and Their Families: An Open Trial

Bagner, D., Rodríguez, G.M., Blake, C.A., & Rosa-Olivares, J. (2013). Home-Based Preventive Parenting Intervention for at-Risk Infants and Their Families: An Open Trial. Cognitive and behavioral practice, 20 3, 334-348 .
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2012.08.001

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and initial outcome of a home-based adaptation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for at-risk infants with externalizing behavior problems. Seven 12- to 15-month-old infants and their families were recruited at a large pediatric primary care clinic to participate in a home-based parenting intervention to prevent subsequent externalizing behavior problems. Home-based assessments were conducted at baseline, postintervention, and a 4- to 6-month follow-up. Six of the 7 (86%) families completed the intervention, and all completers reported high satisfaction with the intervention. All of the mothers demonstrated significant improvements and statistically reliable changes in their interactions with their infant, and most reported clinically significant and statistically reliable changes in infant behavior problems. The current study provides preliminary support for the use of this brief, home-based parenting intervention in addressing behavior problems as early as possible to improve access to an intervention for at-risk infants and their families. Successes and challenges with the development and implementation of this intervention are discussed along with directions for future research and clinical practice.


Keywords: PCIT,  infancy, externalizing behavior problems, prevention, parenting, risk

Article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1077722912001010?via%3Dihub

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Impact of a Brief Group Intervention to Enhance Parenting and the Home Learning Environment for Children Aged 6-36 Months: a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

Hackworth, N., Berthelsen, D., Matthews, J., Westrupp, E., Cann, W., Ukoumunne, O., Bennetts, S., Phan, T., Scicluna, A., Trajanovska, M., Yu, M., Nicholson, J., Hackworth, N. J., Westrupp, E. M., Ukoumunne, O. C., Bennetts, S. K., & Nicholson, J. M. (2017). Impact of a Brief Group Intervention to Enhance Parenting and the Home Learning Environment for Children Aged 6-36 Months: a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial. Prevention Science, 18(3), 337–349. 10.1186/s12887-016-0610-1 

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Abstract: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a group parenting intervention designed to strengthen the home learning environment of children from disadvantaged families. Two cluster randomised controlled superiority trials were conducted in parallel and delivered within existing services: a 6-week parenting group (51 locations randomised; 986 parents) for parents of infants (aged 6-12 months), and a 10-week facilitated playgroup (58 locations randomised; 1200 parents) for parents of toddlers (aged 12-36 months). Each trial had three conditions: intervention (smalltalk group-only); enhanced intervention with home coaching (smalltalk plus); and 'standard'/usual practice controls. Parent-report and observational measures were collected at baseline, 12 and 32 weeks follow-up. Primary outcomes were parent verbal responsivity and home learning activities at 32 weeks. In the infant trial, there were no differences by trial arm for the primary outcomes at 32 weeks. In the toddler trial at 32-weeks, participants in the smalltalk group-only trial showed improvement compared to the standard program for parent verbal responsivity (effect size (ES) = 0.16; 95% CI 0.01, 0.36) and home learning activities (ES = 0.17; 95% CI 0.01, 0.38) but smalltalk plus did not. For the secondary outcomes in the infant trial, several initial differences favouring smalltalk plus were evident at 12 weeks, but not maintained to 32 weeks. For the toddler trial, differences in secondary outcomes favouring smalltalk plus were evident at 12 weeks and maintained to 32 weeks. These trials provide some evidence of the benefits of a parenting intervention focused on the home learning environment for parents of toddlers but not infants.


Keywords: Early childhood intervention; Home learning environment; Cluster randomized controlled trial; Parenting; Parent–child interactions.

 

Article: https://europepmc.org/article/med/27255588

 

Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers’ eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach

Van der Horst, K., & Sleddens, E. F. C. (2017). Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers’ eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach. PLoS ONE, 12(5), 1–16. 

10.1371/journal.pone.0178149

Abstract: Introduction: Toddlers’ eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. Methods: An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians) with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles. Results: A three cluster solution of parenting style was found and clusters were labelled as overprotective/supervising, authoritarian, and authoritative. The clusters differed in terms of general parenting behaviors. Both overprotective and authoritative clusters showed high scores on structure, behavioral control, and nurturance. The overprotective cluster scored high on overprotection. The ‘authoritarian’ cluster showed lowest levels of nurturance, structure and behavioral control. Overprotective and authoritative parents showed very similar patterns in the use of food parenting practices, e.g. monitoring food intake, modeling, and promoting healthy food intake and availability at home. Overprotective parents also reported higher use of pressure to eat and involvement. Authoritarian parents reported high use of giving the child control over their food behaviors, emotion regulation, using food as a reward, and controlling food intake for weight control. Children’s eating styles did not largely vary by parenting cluster. Conclusion: This study showed that a relatively new parenting style of overprotection is relevant for children’s eating behaviors. Overprotective parents reported food parenting practices that are known to be beneficial for children’s food intake, such as modelling healthy food intake, as well as more unfavorable practices such as pressure. Longitudinal data on parenting practices and their relation to healthy eating in children is needed to inform communication and interventions for parents, reinforcing key feeding strategies which have positive effects on child eating behaviors and addressing parenting styles that have unintended negative effects.


Keywords: Age groups; Behavior; Biology and life sciences; Child health; Children; Diet; Eating; Eating habits; Families; Food; Habits; Medicine and health sciences; Nutrition; Parenting behavior; Pediatrics; People and places; Physiological processes; Physiology; Population groupings; Public and occupational health; Research Article; Toddlers.  

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28542555/

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Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for toddlers: A pilot study

Kohlhoff, J., & Morgan, S. (2014). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for toddlers: A pilot study. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 36, 121-139.
https://doi.org/10.1080/07317107.2014.910733

Abstract: Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an evidence-based program used to treat behavioral disorders in early childhood (2–7 years; Eyberg, 1988). This article describes a modified version of PCIT for young toddlers (PCIT-T) adapted to meet the developmental needs of children aged 12–24 months. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of PCIT-T with 29 parent-toddler dyads (children aged <2 years) presenting with significant behavior problems, assessed pretreatment and posttreatment. Outcomes for two groups of older children who participated
in PCIT (Group 1: 2–3 years, n ¼ 29; Group 2: 3–4 years, n ¼ 29) were also assessed. Results showed PCIT-T to be associated with a range of positive child and parental outcomes including decreased intensity of disruptive child behaviors, increased parental utilization of PCIT parenting skills, decreased parental depressive symptoms, and high levels of consumer satisfaction with the program. This study provides early evidence that a modified version of PCIT can be successfully used to treat behavior disorders in children aged less than 2 years.


Keywords: PCIT; Model Adaptation Studies; Disruptive Behavior Disorders; Early Intervention; Parenting; Toddlers.

Article: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07317107.2014.910733

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Parent-Child Attunement Therapy for toddlers: A behaviorall