Population-Specific

Adaptation Articles

 

Infant Studies

Behavioral parent training in infancy: What about the parent-infant relationship? (abstract)

Blizzard, A. M., Barroso, N. E., Ramos, F. G., Graziano, P. A., & Bagner, D. M. (2017)

Behavioral parent training in infancy: A window of opportunity for high-risk families (abstract)

Bagner, D. M., Coxe, S., Hungerford, G. M., Garcia, D., Barroso, N. E., Hernandez, J., & Rosa-Olivares, J. (2016)

Direct and indirect effects of behavioral parent training on infant language production (abstract)

Bagner, D. M., Garcia, D., & Hill, R. (2016)

Home-based preventive parenting intervention for at-risk infants and their families: An open trial (abstract)

Bagner, D. M., Rodríguez, G. M., Blake, C. A., & Rosa-Olivares, J. (2013) 

 

Toddler Studies

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for toddlers: A pilot study (abstract)

Kohlhoff, J., & Morgan, S. (2014)

Parent-Child Attunement Therapy for toddlers: A behaviorally oriented, play-based parent training model (abstract)

Dombrowski, S. C., Timmer, S. G., & Zebell, N. (2008)

A positive behavioural intervention for toddlers: Parent-Child Attunement Therapy (abstract)

Dombrowski, S. C., Timmer, S. G., Blacker, D. M., & Urquiza, A. J. (2005)

 

Physical and Medical Conditions

Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for deaf families that communicate via American Sign Language: A formal adaptation approach (abstract)

Day, L. A., Costa, E. A., Previ, D., & Caverly, C. (2017)

Assessing the effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with language delayed children: A clinical investigation (abstract)

Falkus, G., Tilley, C., Thomas, C., Hockey, H., Kennedy, A., Arnold, T., Thorburn, B., Jones, K., Patel, B., Piments, C., Shah, R., Tweedie, F., O'Brien, F., Leahy, R., & Pring, T. (2016) 

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and moderate pediatric traumatic brain injury: A case study (abstract)

Garcia, D., Barroso, N. E., Kuluz, J., & Bagner, D. M. (2016)

The practical side of working with Parent–Child Interaction Therapy with preschool children with language impairments (abstract)

Klatte, L.S., & Roulstone, S. (2016)

Combining Parent–Child Interaction Therapy and visual supports for the treatment of challenging behavior in a child with autism and intellectual disabilities and comorbid epilepsy (abstract)

Armstrong, K., DeLoatche, K. J., Preece, K. K. & Agazzi, H. (2015)

Language production in children with and at risk for delay: Mediating role of parenting skills (abstract)

Garcia, D., Bagner, D. M., Pruden, S. M., & Nichols-Lopez, K. (2015)

Parent–Child Interaction Therapy with deaf parents and their hearing child: A case study (abstract)

Armstrong, K., David, A., & Goldberg, K. (2014)

Parent training for children born premature: A pilot study examining the moderating role of emotion regulation (abstract)

Rodríguez, G. M., Bagner, D. M., & Graziano, P. A. (2014)

Evidence-based intervention for young children born premature: Preliminary evidence for associated changes in physiological regulation (abstract)

Graziano, P. A., Bagner, D. M., Sheinkopf, S. J., Vohr, B. R., & Lester, B. M. (2013)

Parent–Child Interaction Therapy with a deaf and hard of hearing family (abstract)

Shinn, M. M. (2013)

An initial investigation of baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a moderator of treatment outcome for young children born premature with externalizing behavior problems (abstract)

Bagner, D. M., Graziano, P. A., Jaccard, J., Sheinkopf, S. J., Vohr, B. R., & Lester, B. M. (2012)

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy as a family-oriented approach to behavioral management following psychiatric traumatic brain injury: A case report. (abstract)

Cohen, M. L., Heaton, S. C., Ginn, N., & Eyberg, S. M. (2012)

Klinefelter's syndrome in a 5-year-old boy with behavioral disturbances and seizures (abstract)

Jensen, E., Palacios, E., & Drury, S. (2011)

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in school-aged children with specific language impairment (abstract)

Allen, J., & Marshall, C. R. (2011)

Parenting intervention for externalizing behavior problems in children born premature: An initial examination (abstract)

Bagner, D. M., Sheinkopf, S. J., Vohr, B. R., & Lester, B. M. (2010)

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for children born premature: A case study and illustration of vagal tones as a physiological measure of treatment outcome (abstract)

Bagner, D. M., Sheinkopf, S. J., Miller-Loncar, C. L., Vohr, B. R., Hinckley, M., Eyberg, S. M., & Lester, B. M. (2009)

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and chronic illness: A case study (abstract)   

Bagner, D. M., Fernandez, M. A., & Eyberg, S. M. (2004)

Parent-Child Interaction Training for parents with a history of mental retardation (abstract)

Peterson, S. L., Robinson, E. A., & Littman, I. (1983)

 

Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT) &

School-Related Research Articles

Collaborating with public school partners to implement Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT) as universal prevention (abstract)

Budd, K. S., Barbacz, L. L., & Carter, J. S. (2015)

From the clinics to the classrooms: A review of Teacher-Child Interaction Training in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention settings (abstract)

Fernandez, M. A., Gold, D. C., Hirsch, E., & Miller, S. P. (2015)

Teacher-Child Interaction Training: A pilot study with random assignment (abstract)

Fernandez, M. A. (2015)

Promoting positive interactions in the classroom: Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy as a universal prevention program (abstract)

Gershenson, R. A., Lyon, A. R., & Budd, K. S. (2010)

Effectiveness of Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT) in a preschool setting (abstract)

Lyon, A. R., Gershenson, R. A., Farahmand, F. K., Thaxter, P. J., Behling, S., & Budd, K. S. (2009)

Managing classroom behavior of Head Start children using response cost and token economy procedures (abstract)

Tiano, J. D., Fortson, B. L., McNeil, C. B., & Humphreys, L. A. (2005)

Training Head Start teachers in behavior management using Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A preliminary investigation (abstract)

Tiano, J.D., & McNeil, C.B. (2005)

Psychometric properties of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory with rural middle school and high school children (abstract)

Floyd, E. M., Rayfield, A., Eyberg, S. M., & Riley, J. L. (2004)

The use of token economies in preschool classrooms: Practical and philosophical concerns (abstract)

Filcheck, H. A., & McNeil, C. B. (2004)

Using a whole-class token economy and coaching of teacher skills in a preschool classroom to manage disruptive behavior (abstract)

Filcheck, H. A., McNeil, C. B., Greco, L. A., & Bernard, R. S. (2004)

Psychometric properties of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised with preschool children (abstract)

Querido, J. G., & Eyberg, S. M. (2003)

Psychometric properties and reference point data for the Revised Edition of the School Observation Coding System (abstract)

Jacobs, J. R., Boggs, S. R., Eyberg, S. M., Edwards, D., Durning, P., Querido, J. G., McNeil, C. B., & Funderburk, B. W. (2000)

Parent-child interaction therapy with behavior problem children: Maintenance of treatment effects in the school setting (abstract)

Funderburk, B. W., Eyberg, S. M., Newcomb, K., McNeil, C., Hembree-Kigin, T., & Capage, L. (1998)

Revision of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory: Teacher ratings of conduct problem behavior (abstract)

Rayfield, A., Eyberg, S. M., & Foote, R. (1998)

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with behavior problem children: Generalization of treatment effects to the school setting (abstract)

Funderburk, B., Newcomb, K., McNeil, C. B., Eyberg, S., & Eisenstadt, T. H. (1991)

Further psychometric evaluation of the Eyberg Behavior Rating scales for parents and teachers of preschoolers (abstract)

Funderburk, B. W., & Eyberg, S. M. (1989)

Psychometric characteristics of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventor: A school behavior rating scale for use with preschool children (abstract)

Funderburk, B. W., & Eyberg, S. M. (1989)

 

Military Families

Kids at the VA? A call for evidence-based parenting interventions for returning veterans (abstract)

Pemberton, J. R., Kramer, T. L., Borrego, J., & Owen, R. R. (2013)

Behavioral parent training in infancy: What about the parent-infant relationship?

Blizzard, A. M., Barroso, N. E., Ramos, F. G., Graziano, P. A., & Bagner, D. M. (2017). Behavioral parent training in infancy: What about the parent-infant relationship? Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 1-13.  
https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2017.1310045

Abstract: Behavioral parent training (BPT) and attachment interventions have demonstrated efficacy in improving outcomes for young children. Despite theoretical overlap in these approaches, the literature has evolved separately, particularly with respect to outcome measurement in BPT. We examined the impact of the Infant Behavior Program (IBP), a brief home-based adaptation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy, on changes in attachment-based caregiving behaviors (sensitivity, warmth, and intrusiveness) at postintervention and 3- and 6-month follow-ups during a videotaped infant-led play. Sixty mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to receive the IBP (n = 28) or standard care (n = 30). Infants were an average age of 13.52 months and predominately from ethnic or racial minority backgrounds (98%). We used bivariate correlations to examine the association between attachment-based caregiving behaviors and behaviorally based parenting do and don't skills and structural equation modeling to examine the direct effect of the IBP on attachment-based caregiving behaviors and the indirect effect of behaviorally based parenting skills on the relation between intervention group and attachment-based caregiving behaviors. Behaviorally based parenting do and don't skills were moderately correlated with attachment-based caregiving behaviors. Results demonstrated a direct effect of the IBP on warmth and sensitivity at postintervention and 3- and 6-month follow-ups. The direct effect of the IBP on warmth and sensitivity at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups was mediated by increases in parenting do skills at postintervention. Findings suggest that behaviorally based parenting skills targeted in BPT programs have a broader impact on important attachment-based caregiving behaviors during the critical developmental transition from infancy to toddlerhood.


Keywords: PCIT; Infant Studies. 

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28414546/

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Behavioral parent training in infancy: A window of opportunity for high-risk families

Bagner, D. M., Coxe, S., Hungerford, G. M., Garcia, D., Barroso, N. E., Hernandez, J., & Rosa-Olivares, J. (2016). Behavioral parent training in infancy: A window of opportunity for high-risk families. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44, 901-912.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-0089-5

Abstract: To meet the mental health needs of infants from high-risk families, we examined the effect of a brief home-based adaptation of Parent-child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) on improvements in infant and parent behaviors and reductions in parenting stress. Participants included 60 infants (55 % male; average age of 13.5 ± 1.31 months) who were recruited at a large urban primary care clinic and were included if their scores exceeded the 75th percentile on a brief screener of early behavior problems. Most infants were from an ethnic or racial minority background (98 %) and lived below the poverty line (60 %). Families were randomly assigned to receive the home-based parenting intervention or standard pediatric primary care. Observational and parent-report measures of infant and parenting behaviors were examined at pre- and post-intervention and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Infants receiving the intervention were more compliant with maternal commands at the 6-month follow-up and displayed lower levels of externalizing and internalizing behavior problems across post and follow-up assessments compared to infants in standard care. Mothers receiving the intervention displayed a significantly higher proportion of positive and lower proportion of negative behaviors with their infant during play compared to mothers in the standard care group. There were no significant group differences for parenting stress. Results provide initial evidence for the efficacy of this brief and home-based adaptation of PCIT for infants. These findings highlight the benefit of identification and intervention as early as possible to promote mental health for infants from high-risk families.


Keywords: PCIT; Infant Studies; Infancy; Behavior Problems; Parent Training; Early Intervention; Risk.

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26446726/

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Direct and indirect effects of behavioral parent training on infant language production

Bagner, D. M., Garcia, D., & Hill, R. (2016). Direct and indirect effects of behavioral parent training on infant language production. Behavior Therapy, 47, 184-197.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2015.11.001

Abstract: Given the strong association between early behavior problems and language impairment, we examined the effect of a brief home-based adaptation of Parent-child Interaction Therapy on infant language production. Sixty infants (55% male; mean age 13.47±1.31 months) were recruited at a large urban primary care clinic and were included if their scores exceeded the 75th percentile on a brief screener of early behavior problems. Families were randomly assigned to receive the home-based parenting intervention or standard pediatric primary care. The observed number of infant total (i.e., token) and different (i.e., type) utterances spoken during an observation of an infant-led play and a parent-report measure of infant externalizing behavior problems were examined at pre- and post-intervention and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Infants receiving the intervention demonstrated a significantly higher number of observed different and total utterances at the 6-month follow-up compared to infants in standard care. Furthermore, there was an indirect effect of the intervention on infant language production, such that the intervention led to decreases in infant externalizing behavior problems from pre- to post-intervention, which, in turn, led to increases in infant different utterances at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups and total utterances at the 6-month follow-up. Results provide initial evidence for the effect of this brief and home-based intervention on infant language production, including the indirect effect of the intervention on infant language through improvements in infant behavior, highlighting the importance of targeting behavior problems in early intervention.


Keywords: PCIT; Infant Studies; Language Production; Infancy; Behavior Problems; Parenting; Early Intervention. 

Article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0005789415001203?via%3Dihub

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Home-Based Preventive Parenting Intervention for at-Risk Infants and Their Families: An Open Trial

Bagner, D., Rodríguez, G.M., Blake, C.A., & Rosa-Olivares, J. (2013). Home-Based Preventive Parenting Intervention for at-Risk Infants and Their Families: An Open Trial. Cognitive and behavioral practice, 20 3, 334-348 .
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2012.08.001

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and initial outcome of a home-based adaptation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for at-risk infants with externalizing behavior problems. Seven 12- to 15-month-old infants and their families were recruited at a large pediatric primary care clinic to participate in a home-based parenting intervention to prevent subsequent externalizing behavior problems. Home-based assessments were conducted at baseline, postintervention, and a 4- to 6-month follow-up. Six of the 7 (86%) families completed the intervention, and all completers reported high satisfaction with the intervention. All of the mothers demonstrated significant improvements and statistically reliable changes in their interactions with their infant, and most reported clinically significant and statistically reliable changes in infant behavior problems. The current study provides preliminary support for the use of this brief, home-based parenting intervention in addressing behavior problems as early as possible to improve access to an intervention for at-risk infants and their families. Successes and challenges with the development and implementation of this intervention are discussed along with directions for future research and clinical practice.


Keywords: PCIT,  infancy, externalizing behavior problems, prevention, parenting, risk

Article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1077722912001010?via%3Dihub

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Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for toddlers: A pilot study

Kohlhoff, J., & Morgan, S. (2014). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for toddlers: A pilot study. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 36, 121-139.
https://doi.org/10.1080/07317107.2014.910733

Abstract: Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an evidence-based program used to treat behavioral disorders in early childhood (2–7 years; Eyberg, 1988). This article describes a modified version of PCIT for young toddlers (PCIT-T) adapted to meet the developmental needs of children aged 12–24 months. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of PCIT-T with 29 parent-toddler dyads (children aged <2 years) presenting with significant behavior problems, assessed pretreatment and posttreatment. Outcomes for two groups of older children who participated
in PCIT (Group 1: 2–3 years, n ¼ 29; Group 2: 3–4 years, n ¼ 29) were also assessed. Results showed PCIT-T to be associated with a range of positive child and parental outcomes including decreased intensity of disruptive child behaviors, increased parental utilization of PCIT parenting skills, decreased parental depressive symptoms, and high levels of consumer satisfaction with the program. This study provides early evidence that a modified version of PCIT can be successfully used to treat behavior disorders in children aged less than 2 years.


Keywords: PCIT; Model Adaptation Studies; Disruptive Behavior Disorders; Early Intervention; Parenting; Toddlers.

Article: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07317107.2014.910733

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Parent-Child Attunement Therapy for toddlers: A behaviorally oriented, play-based parent training model 

Dombrowski, S. C., Timmer, S. G., & Zebell, N. (2008). Parent-Child Attunement Therapy for toddlers: A behaviorally oriented, play-based parent training model. In C. E. Schaefer, S. Kelly-Zion, J. McCormick, & A. Ohnogi (Eds). Play therapy for very young children, pp. 125-155. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson, Inc.

Abstract: Toddlerhood is a critical period that lays the foundation for later development. It is important for fostering attachment security, solidifying the relationship between caregivers and children, and developing cognitive and language skills. Toddlerhood also requires a new set of developmental tasks that focus on self-development, emotion regulation and social representational models. Certain types of dysfunctional caregiver-toddler relationship patterns can contribute to less than optimal social-emotional development and a variety of pathological symptoms that might elicit need for prevention or intervention. Accordingly, there is significant need for empirically supported therapeutic approaches that address these difficult behaviors. Parent-Child Attunement Therapy (PCAT) is a promising behaviorally based, play therapeutic modality that is suitable for this purpose. PCAT is based upon the rich clinical and empirical tradition of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), which has been documented in preschool and early elementary school children to improve behavioral adjustment and establish a stronger bond between caregivers and children. Parent Child Attunement Therapy (PCAT) represents an adaptation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) and is guided by a similar theoretical approach and clinical tradition, appropriately modified for the toddler stage of development. Like PCIT, PCAT focuses on enhancing the caregiver-child relationship and improving the toddler's behavior through in vivo parent-coaching sessions. This is accomplished by increasing caregivers' attention to children's positive and appropriate behavior, decreasing attention to inappropriate behavior, and instructing parents on how to follow their children's lead in play in a nondirective fashion. Because the goals of PCAT involve consistent attention to children's appropriate behavior, caregivers become more accessible and the behavior of both the caregivers and the toddlers becomes more predictable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)


Keywords: PCIT; Book Chapters; Toddlers. 

Article: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2008-14952-006

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A positive behavioural intervention for toddlers: Parent-Child Attunement Therapy 

Dombrowski, S. C., Timmer, S. G., Blacker, D. M., & Urquiza, A. J. (2005). A positive behavioural intervention for toddlers: Parent-Child Attunement Therapy. Child Abuse Review, 14,  132-151. 10.1002/car.888

Abstract: Parent–child attunement therapy (PCAT) is a promising intervention for toddlers (aged 12–30 months) who have experienced maltreatment. PCAT has two overall purposes: (1) to strengthen caregivers’ relationship with their children; and (2) to facilitate caregivers’ learning of appropriate child management techniques. PCAT represents an adaptation of parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT), which has been empirically documented in preschool and early elementary schoolchildren to improve behavioural adjustment and engender a stronger bond between caregiver and child. There is, however, a noted paucity of intervention research for toddlers, specifically maltreated toddlers. As toddlerhood represents a critical period for enhancing the relationship between caregivers and children and is a stage when youngsters are at increased risk for maltreatment, the objectives of PCAT become even more salient during the toddler years. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to introduce PCAT and then examine its effectiveness through a single case study of a 23-month-old maltreated toddler and his biological mother. Pre- and post-assessment measures included the Parenting Stress Index, the Dyadic Parent–Child Interaction Coding System (DPICS), the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Emotional Availability (EA) Scales and the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI). The results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of PCAT in increasing the number of positive caregiver–toddler interactions and enhancing the overall quality of the caregiver–toddler relationship. Practitioners will be able to use the techniques described in this manuscript to improve the parent–toddler relationship and ameliorate many commonly experienced behavioural difficulties found among maltreatment-prone parent–toddler dyads. Therapeutic progress is easily charted so that effectiveness may be documented and termination of therapy may be easily discerned.


Keywords: PCIT; Child Maltreatment; Toddler; Model Adaptation Study; Dyadic Parent Child Interaction Coding System; DPICS; PCAT; Maltreatment; Parent Training; Behavioural Intervention.

Article: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/car.888

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Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for deaf families that communicate via American Sign Language: A formal adaptation approach 

Day, L. A., Costa, E. A., Previ, D., & Caverly, C. (2017). Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for deaf families that communicate via American Sign Language: A formal adaptation approach. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 25 (1), 7-21.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2017.01.008

Abstract: While our field has made positive strides in adapting psychotherapeutic interventions for diverse groups of people, considerable work is still needed in this area. We present our formal adaptation procedure for parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT) with Deaf persons.  This includes a review of the cultural adaptation process for psychological interventions, including PCIT, as well as an introduction to  Deaf culture. Details regarding the specific adaptation of PCIT for Deaf persons are outlined. We found that the utilization of a clear framework to guide the cultural adaptation process facilitated careful consideration of the numerous linguistic and cultural variables involved, while maintaining integrity of the treatment model. While the current focus was on adapting PCIT for Deaf families who communicate via American Sign Language, this framework can also be applied to other populations and/or interventions. 


Keywords: PCIT; Model Adaptation Studies; Deaf; Psychotherapy Adaptation; Ecological Validity Theory. 

Article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1077722917300305?via%3Dihub

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Assessing the effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with language delayed children: A clinical investigation

Falkus, G., Tilley, C., Thomas, C., Hockey, H., Kennedy, A., Arnold, T., Thorburn, B., Jones, K., Patel, B., Piments, C., Shah, R., Tweedie, F., O'Brien, F., Leahy, R., & Pring, T. (2016). Assessing the effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with language delayed children: A clinical investigation. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 32, 7-17.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0265659015574918

Abstract: Parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT) is widely used by speech and language therapists to improve the interactions between children with delayed language development and their parents/carers. Despite favourable reports of the therapy from clinicians, little evidence of its effectiveness is available. We investigated the effects of PCIT as practised by clinicians within a clinical setting. Eighteen consecutive children referred for speech and language therapy because of their delayed language were entered in the study. A within-participants design was used, and the procedure was similar to that used clinically. Blind assessments were conducted twice before therapy to monitor change without therapy and once after completing PCIT. Significant changes in a parent rating scale, the children’s mean length of utterance and the ratio of time of child to parent speech were found after the therapy. No changes were detected prior to therapy. The similarity of the design to clinical practice and the use of several clinicians suggest that the findings can be generalized to other settings and clinicians. These findings are a first step in evaluating PCIT; we now need to show that parents can maintain their newly acquired skills in interaction, and that this benefits their children’s communication.


Keywords: PCIT; Clinical Disorders; General Outcome Studies; Children; Interaction; Intervention; Language Delay; Parents. 

Article: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0265659015574918

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Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and moderate pediatric traumatic brain injury: A case study

Garcia, D., Barroso, N. E., Kuluz, J., & Bagner, D. M. (2016). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and moderate pediatric traumatic brain injury: A case study. Evidence-Based Practice in Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 1, 40-50.
https://doi.org/10.1080/23794925.2016.1191977

Abstract: The objective of this article is to present a case study examining the use of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) for a 5-year-old African American girl from an economically disadvantaged background who sustained a moderate traumatic brain injury. “Victoria’s” preinjury history, family environment, and injury characteristics are detailed along with the results of her baseline, postintervention, and follow-up assessments. Following 11 sessions of PCIT over 7 months, Victoria no longer met diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder and showed clinically significant decreases in her externalizing behavior problems at the end of treatment. However, maintenance of treatment gains was not observed at the 6-month follow-up assessment. The current case study highlights some of the advantages and challenges associated with the use of PCIT to treat externalizing behavior problems in young children with traumatic brain injury, especially those from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Further examination of behavioral interventions with larger samples is needed to meet the needs of this high-risk population.


Keywords: PCIT; Clinical Disorders; Oppositional Defiant Disorder; International & Cultural Studies; Low-Income; Traumatic Brain Injury; Clinical Disorders; Oppositional Defiant Disorder. 

Article: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23794925.2016.1191977

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The practical side of working with Parent–Child Interaction Therapy with preschool children with language impairments

Klatte, L.S., & Roulstone, S. (2016). The practical side of working with Parent–Child Interaction Therapy with preschool children with language impairments. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 32, 345-359.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0265659016641999

Abstract: A common early intervention approach for preschool children with language problems is parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT). PCIT has positive effects for children with expressive language problems. It appears that speech and language therapists (SLTs) conduct this therapy in many different ways. This might be because of the variety of approaches available, the diverse set of families SLTs work with or the different organizational structures. Understanding the critical components of PCIT would enable SLTs to map the variations that are implemented and researchers to evaluate the effects of such variation. This study aimed to identify the potentially critical components of PCIT based on the practical experience of SLTs and to identify SLTs’ rationales for the way they structure PCIT. Both parameters are important for the long term goal, that is, to develop a framework that can be used to support practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 SLTs who had at least one year experience in delivering PCIT with preschool children with language impairment. The interviews were transcribed and analysed, using thematic analysis. Analysis of the SLT interview data identified four potentially critical components that underpin the teaching of strategies to parents: parents’ engagement, parents’ understanding, parents’ reflection and therapists’ skills. SLTs suggested that all four components are needed for the successful delivery of PCIT. The reasons that SLTs give for the way in which they structure PCIT are mainly based on organizational constraints, family needs and practicalities. SLTs consider PCIT to be valuable but challenging to implement. A framework that makes explicit these components may be beneficial to support practice.


Keywords: PCIT; Clinical Disorders; Engagement; Language Impairment; Parent–child Interaction Therapy; Preschool Children; Therapy; Toddler. 

Article: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0265659016641999

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Combining Parent–Child Interaction Therapy and visual supports for the treatment of challenging behavior in a child with autism and intellectual disabilities and comorbid epilepsy

Armstrong, K., DeLoatche, K. J., Preece, K. K. & Agazzi, H. (2015). Combining Parent–Child Interaction Therapy and visual supports for the treatment of challenging behavior in a child with autism and intellectual disabilities and comorbid epilepsy. Clinical Case Studies, 14, 3-14.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1534650114531451

Abstract: About one in six children has one or more developmental disabilities, which include autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID). Individuals with both ASD and ID are at higher risk of epilepsy, and those with younger onset of seizures are at higher risk of both developmental and behavioral disorders. Young children presenting with developmental and behavioral challenges are often very difficult for caregivers to manage, and challenging
behavior results in reduced learning opportunities. Finding effective and efficient interventions to address behavioral issues remains a clinical priority to improve overall outcomes for all children and especially those with developmental disabilities. This case study presents the treatment of a 5-year-old girl diagnosed with ASD, ID, and comorbid epilepsy using Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) combined with visual supports (VS). Findings from this case report
documented (a) an improvement in behavioral functioning in home, school, and community settings; (b) evidence for the effectiveness of parent-mediated intervention; and (c) support for collaboration and care coordination to improve intervention outcomes


Keywords: PCIT; Clinical Disorders; Autism Spectrum Disorder; Intellectual Disabilities; Epilepsy. 

Article: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1534650114531451

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Language production in children with and at risk for delay: Mediating role of parenting skills 

Garcia, D., Bagner, D. M., Pruden, S. M., & Nichols-Lopez, K. (2015). Language production in children with and at risk for delay: Mediating role of parenting skills. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44, 814-25. 

Abstract: The current study examined the effect of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), a parent-training intervention for child behavior problems, on child language production. Participants were 46 children (ages 20-70 months) with externalizing behavior problems and with or at risk for developmental delay. Parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to a waitlist control or immediate treatment group. Parenting skills learned during PCIT (i.e., "do skills") and children's word tokens and word types were measured at baseline and 4 months later. Findings suggest an indirect effect of parent do skills on the relation between group and child word types, such that more parent do skills predicted more child word types for families receiving PCIT. The present study found that mothers' use of child-directed skills played an important role in the growth and improvement of child language. Results suggest that parent-training interventions targeting child behavior problems may also foster child language production.


Keywords: PCIT; Parental Factors; Clinical Disorders; Externalizing Disorders; Developmental Delay.

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24787263/

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Parent–Child Interaction Therapy with deaf parents and their hearing child: A case study

Armstrong, K., David, A., & Goldberg, K. (2014). Parent–Child Interaction Therapy with deaf parents and their hearing child: A case study. Clinical Case Studies, 13, 115-127.  

https://doi.org/10.1177/1534650113502705

Abstract: There are few proven effective treatments such as Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) for use with deaf parents and their children, even though it is likely that the prevalence rate for disruptive behavior problems including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are similar to those reported for all U.S. children. Medication and behavioral therapy involving parents comprise the cornerstone for ADHD/ODD management, with PCIT endorsed as one of the most effective interventions available for children aged 2 to 7 years. This case study presents the implementation of PCIT with deaf parents and their 7-year-old hearing son with ADHD/ODD, with the help of a certified interpreter and readily available video technology. Findings from this case report documented PCIT as a promising treatment option for use with individuals who are deaf.


Keywords: PCIT; Clinical Disorders; Deaf; ADHD; Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

Article: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1534650113502705

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Parent training for children born premature: A pilot study examining the moderating role of emotion regulation

Rodríguez, G. M., Bagner, D. M., & Graziano, P. A. (2014). Parent training for children born premature: A pilot study examining the moderating role of emotion regulation. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 45, 143-152.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-013-0385-7

Abstract: The aim of the current study was to examine the moderating effect of emotion regulation on treatment efficacy following a parent-training intervention, parent-child interaction therapy, for young children born preterm. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, 28 young children who were born preterm (i.e., <37 weeks gestation) and presented with elevated levels of externalizing behavior problems were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment or waitlist control group. Observers masked to treatment condition coded an index of emotion regulation (i.e., global regulation) during a videotaped 10-min parent-child interaction at the initial baseline assessment. Treatment efficacy was assessed using a parent-report questionnaire of child disruptive behavior. Results demonstrated that global regulation significantly interacted with treatment condition in predicting change in child disruptive behavior. Specifically, higher levels of distress at baseline were associated with greater improvements in child disruptive behavior following the intervention. These findings are discussed in the context of the differential susceptibility hypothesis and highlight the importance of considering children's emotion regulation skills in the course of psychosocial treatment for young children born premature.


Keywords: PCIT; Clinical Disorders; Externalizing or Disruptive Behaviors; Behavior Therapy; Child Behavior; Child Behavior Disorders; Child, Preschool; Emotions; Female; Humans; Infant, Premature; Male; Mothers; Parent-Child Relations; Parenting; Parents; Pilot Projects; Social Control, Informal; Treatment Outcome. 

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23681677/

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Evidence-based intervention for young children born premature: Preliminary evidence for associated changes in physiological regulation

Graziano, P. A., Bagner, D. M., Sheinkopf, S. J., Vohr, B. R., & Lester, B. M. (2013). Evidence-based intervention for young children born premature: Preliminary evidence for associated changes in physiological regulation. Infant Behavior and Development, 35, 417-426.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2012.04.001

Abstract: The current study examined whether changes in maternal behaviors following an evidence-based treatment--Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT)-- was associated with improvements in cardiac vagal regulation in young children born premature. Participants included 28 young children (mean age = 37.79 months) that were both premature and presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems. To assess cardiac vagal regulation, resting measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA change (withdrawal or suppression) to a clean-up task were derived pre and post-treatment (i.e., do skills-- praise, reflection, and behavioral descriptions) were associated with an improvement in children's post-treatment RSA suppression level. The current study illustrates the important role of caregiver behavior in promoting physiological regulation in children born premature.


Keywords: PCIT; Parental Factors; Cardiac Vagal Regulations; RSA Suppression; Emotion Regulation; Prematurity; Child; Parent Training.

Article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0163638312000458?via%3Dihub

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Parent–Child Interaction Therapy with a deaf and hard of hearing family

Shinn, M. M. (2013). Parent–Child Interaction Therapy with a deaf and hard of hearing family. Clinical Case Studies, 12, 411-427.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1534650113500065

Abstract: Deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children are an exceptional needs population with unique mental health concerns requiring specialized intervention. However, psychological interventions aimed at treating these children are limited. Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an empirically established therapeutic modality for the treatment of children with behavioral and emotional difficulties. This case study describes how PCIT was adapted to effectively intervene in assisting a deaf mother improve parent–child communication, bonding, and her hard-of hearing son’s behavior. Readers will learn how PCIT was adapted and implemented with a DHH family, including the use of sign language interpreters within the model, translating PCIT behavioral coaching to American Sign Language, and an overall broadened understanding of mental health treatment with the DHH population. The effect of treatment on the child and parent who participated is also discussed.


Keywords: PCIT; Model Adaptation Studies; Deaf; Hard of Hearing; Child Therapy; Interpreters.

Article: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1534650113500065

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An initial investigation of baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a moderator of treatment outcome for young children born premature with externalizing behavior problems

Bagner, D. M., Graziano, P. A., Jaccard, J., Sheinkopf, S. J., Vohr, B. R., & Lester, B. M. (2012). An initial investigation of baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a moderator of treatment outcome for young children born premature with externalizing behavior problems. Behavior Therapy, 43, 652-65.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2011.12.002

Abstract: The aim of the current study was to examine the moderating effect of baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) on Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), a behavioral parent-training intervention, for young children born premature. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, 28 young children (mean age of 37.79 months), who were born <37 weeks gestation and presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems, were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment or waitlist control group. RSA, which provides an approximate marker of individual differences in cardiac vagal tone, was measured during a baseline period. Past research has generally shown that higher levels of baseline RSA correlate with various positive psychological states (e.g., empathy, sustained attention), whereas lower levels of baseline RSA correlate with less optimal psychological states (e.g., higher externalizing behavior problems). Results indicated that baseline RSA significantly interacted with treatment condition in predicting changes in child disruptive behavior. Specifically, low levels of baseline RSA were associated with greater improvements in child disruptive behavior following PCIT. While acknowledging the caveats of measuring and interpreting RSA and the need to include a sympathetic-linked cardiac measure in future research, these findings provide preliminary evidence that children with lower capacity for emotion regulation receive even greater treatment gains. Future research should also examine the moderating effect of RSA in larger samples and explore the potential mediating role of RSA on behavioral parenting interventions.


Keywords: PCIT; Clinical Disorders; Externalizing or Disruptive Behaviors; Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia; Emotion Regulation; Prematurity; Behavior Problems; Behavioral Parent Training. 

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22697452/

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Parent-Child Interaction Therapy as a family-oriented approach to behavioral management following psychiatric traumatic brain injury: A case report.

Cohen, M. L., Heaton, S. C., Ginn, N., & Eyberg, S. M. (2012). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy as a family-oriented approach to behavioral management following psychiatric traumatic brain injury: A case report. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 37, 251-261.
https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsr086

Abstract: Objective To present a case study illustrating the application of parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT) for management of a child’s externalizing behaviors related to a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods An 11-year-old boy’s history and injury are described, followed by a description of PCIT and the course of therapy. Results After 9 sessions of PCIT, the child displayed fewer negative behaviors, and his mother’s distress was reduced. Conclusions This case demonstrates the feasibility of using PCIT with a child older than the recommended age range to address behavior problems associated with TBI.


Keywords: PCIT; Clinical Disorders; Externalizing & Disruptive Behaviors; Behavior Problems; Case Study; Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury; Traumatic Brain Injury. 

Article: https://academic.oup.com/jpepsy/article/37/3/251/914380

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Klinefelter's syndrome in a 5-year-old boy with behavioral disturbances and seizures

Jensen, E., Palacios, E., & Drury, S. (2011). Klinefelter's syndrome in a 5-year-old boy with behavioral disturbances and seizures. Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation and Liaison Psychiatry, 52, 575-578.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psym.2011.05.007

Abstract: Klinefelter’s syndrome (KS) is a sex chromosomal aneuploidy with a prevalence of approximately 1 in 500 live male births. KS is characterized by a range of abnormalities, including increased height, language delay, hormonal alterations, motor coordination difficulties, and hypogonadism. Seizures affect 5% of individuals with KS and anti-epileptic drug efficacy is often suboptimal. Psychiatric symptoms, including hallucinations, mood and anxiety disorders, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and autistic behaviors have also been associated with KS. 1–8  In young children, these symptoms may be difficult to differentiate from other psychopathology. 9  Unfortunately, KS is often not diagnosed until puberty. 3  We present a case of a 5-year-old with significant behavioral disruptions and seizures who was subsequently found to have KS and a maternally inherited 15q duplication/ deletion. This case highlights a critical research gap in the treatment of medically ill children with co-morbid psychiatric conditions and reinforces the benefit of genetic testing in young children with complex neuropsychological presentations. The demonstration of a second genetic abnormality offers support for a novel hypothesis whereby the range of symptoms in KS individuals may be explained by additional structural changes in their chromosomes, potentially missed by standard karyotype testing.


Keywords: PCIT; Clinical disorders; Oppositional Defiant Disorders; Language Delay; Medically Ill Children; Co-morbid Disorders; Hyperactivity; Aggression; Anxiety; Mood Symptoms.

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22054630/

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Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in school-aged children with specific language impairment    

Allen, J., & Marshall, C. R. (2011). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in school-aged children with specific language impairment. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 46, 397-410.  
https://doi.org/10.3109/13682822.2010.517600

Abstract: Background: Parents play a critical role in their child’s language development. Therefore, advising parents of a  child with language difficulties on how to facilitate their child’s language might benefit the child. Parent–Child  Interaction Therapy (PCIT) has been developed specifically for this purpose. In PCIT, the speech-and language  therapist (SLT) works collaboratively with parents, altering interaction styles to make interaction more appropriate  to their child’s level of communicative needs. 


Aims: This study investigates the effectiveness of PCIT in 8–10-year-old children with specific language impairment  (SLI) in the expressive domain. It aimed to identify whether PCIT had any significant impact on the following  communication parameters of the child: verbal initiations, verbal and non-verbal responses, mean length of  utterance (MLU), and proportion of child-to-parent utterances. 


Methods & Procedures: Sixteen children with SLI and their parents were randomly assigned to two groups: treated  or delayed treatment (control). The treated group took part in PCIT over a 4-week block, and then returned to  the clinic for a final session after a 6-week consolidation period with no input from the therapist. The treated and  control group were assessed in terms of the different communication parameters at three time points: pre-therapy,  post-therapy (after the 4-week block) and at the final session (after the consolidation period), through video  analysis. It was hypothesized that all communication parameters would significantly increase in the treated group  over time and that no significant differences would be found in the control group. 


Outcomes & Results: All the children in the treated groupmade language gains during spontaneous interactions with  their parents. In comparison with the control group, PCIT had a positive effect on three of the five communication  parameters: verbal initiations, MLU and the proportion of child-to-parent utterances. There was a marginal effect  on verbal responses, and a trend towards such an effect for non-verbal responses.  

Conclusions & Implications: Despite the small group sizes, this study provides preliminary evidence that PCIT can  achieve its treatment goals with 8–10-year-olds who have expressive language impairments. This has potentially  important implications for how mainstream speech and language services provide intervention to school-aged  children. In contrast to direct one-to-one therapy, PCIT offers a single block of therapy where the parents’  communication and interaction skills are developed to provide the child with an appropriate language-rich  environment, which in turn could be more cost-effective for the service provider.  


Keywords: PCIT; Clinical Disorders; Language Impairment; School-aged Children; Expressive Domain; Communication Skills; Speech and Language Therapist; SLT; 8, 9, 10 Years.

Article: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.3109/13682822.2010.517600

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Parenting intervention for externalizing behavior problems in children born premature: An initial examination

Bagner, D. M., Sheinkopf, S. J., Vohr, B. R., & Lester, B. M. (2010). Parenting intervention for externalizing behavior problems in children born premature: An initial examination. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 31, 209-216.
https://doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181d5a294

Abstract: To examine the initial efficacy of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) for treating behavior problems in young children who were born premature. In this randomized, controlled trial, 28 children between the ages of 18 and 60 months, who were born <37 weeks gestation and presented with clinically significant externalizing behavior problems, were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment (IT) or waitlist (WL) control group. After 4 months, children who received PCIT were reported by their mother to have less attention problems, aggressive behaviors, and externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, and they were observed to be more compliant to maternal commands than children in the WL group. In addition, mothers in the IT group interacted more positively with their child, reported lower parenting stress related to difficult child behavior and demonstrated improved parenting practices compared with WL mothers. Behavior change maintained for 80% of the IT children 4 months after treatment completion. This study demonstrates preliminary efficacy of PCIT for the treatment of behavior problems in young children who were born premature.


Keywords: PCIT; Clinical Disorders; Externalizing or Disruptive Behaviors. 

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20375736/

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Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for children born premature: A case study and illustration of vagal tones as a physiological measure of treatment outcome

Bagner, D. M., Sheinkopf, S. J., Miller-Loncar, C. L., Vohr, B. R., Hinckley, M., Eyberg, S. M., & Lester, B. M. (2009). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for children born premature: A case study and illustration of vagal tones as a physiological measure of treatment outcome. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16, 468-477.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2009.05.002

Abstract: Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for externalizing behavior problems in children born premature have not been reported in literature. This single-case study describes Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) with a 23-month-old child born at 29 weeks gestation weighing 1,020 grams, who presented with significant externalizing behavior problems. Treatment outcome was assessed using standard measures of maternal and child functioning and observational measures of the parent-child interactions, as well as a physiological measure of heart rate variability (i.e., vagal tone) used to assess parasympathetic control in the child. Maternal reports of child behavior problems and their own stress and depressive symptoms decreased after treatment. Behavioral observations demonstrated improved parenting practices and child compliance, and vagal tone may be useful measure of treatment outcome.


Keywords: PCIT; Parental Factors; Externalizing Disorders. 

Article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1077722909000959?via%3Dihub

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Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and chronic illness: A case study    

Bagner, D. M., Fernandez, M. A., & Eyberg, S. M. (2004). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and chronic illness: A case study. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 11, 1-6.
https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOCS.0000016264.02407.fd

Abstract: We examined the outcome of parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT) for a child diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and cancer. “Robert,” a 4-year-old Caucasian male, showed significant and meaningful changes in his behavior over the course of 13 weeks of PCIT, and Robert no longer met diagnostic criteria for ODD following treatment. His scores on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist were in the clinical range before treatment and in the normal range at the conclusion of treatment. His mother also reported dramatic improvements in Robert’s behavior during medical visits. Physician and social worker reports were consistent with her report. Such anecdotal data may have implications for the generalization of compliance to the medical setting for children with chronic illnesses. The results of this case study should prompt further investigation of parent-training interventions for children with chronic illnesses and disruptive behavior.


Keywords: PCIT; Case Study; Chronic Illness; Disruptive Behavior; Preschool; Behavior Problems; Child Psychosocial Treatment; Parent Training; Cancer; Adherence. 

Article: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FB%3AJOCS.0000016264.02407.fd

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Parent-child interaction training for parents with a history of mental retardation

Peterson, S. L., Robinson, E. A., & Littman, I. (1983). Parent-child interaction training for parents with a history of mental retardation. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 4, 329-342.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0270-3092(83)90033-4

Abstract: The purpose of the present report was to describe parent-child interaction among families with a history of parental retardation and to explore the possibility of modifying the interaction through parent training. Subjects were six parents who attended eight small group sessions designed to teach relationship building skills. Parents learned to describe, praise, and reflect and to interact nondirectively by refraining from commands during play sessions with their child. Parents decreased directiveness (p less than .01) and increased positive verbal behavior (p less than .01) between pretraining and posttraining, but at one-month follow-up only the decrease in directiveness was maintained (p less than .01). Mentally retarded parents at follow-up were similar to a normative comparison group in number of praises used, but continued to lag behind in descriptive statements. Results suggested that parents with a history of mental retardation can acquire subtle attentional skills, but that they continue to use only the nondirective skills when training is discontinued. It was concluded that additional efforts to understand family interaction patterns and to provide parent training for parents with a history of mental retardation are worthwhile.


Keywords: PCIT; Clinical Disorders; Intellectual Disability; Education of Intellectually Disabled; Parent-Child Relations; Reinforcement, Social.

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6670870/

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Collaborating with public school partners to implement Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT) as universal prevention

Budd, K. S., Barbacz, L. L., & Carter, J. S. (2015).  Collaborating with public school partners to implement Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT) as universal prevention. School Mental Health, 8, 207-221.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-015-9158-8

Abstract: This study expands on prior work investigating the transferability of parent–child interaction therapy, an efficacious treatment program targeting parents of children with disruptive behavior problems, for use as a universal preventive intervention targeting classroom teachers. Using a case study design, Teacher–Child Interaction Training (TCIT) was implemented sequentially with two groups of teachers (N = 20) and 169 preschool and kindergarten students in a public school setting. This study served as a pilot test for the feasibility of having local school staff independently implement TCIT, following training and participation in an initial delivery of TCIT conducted by a research team. Controlling for teacher effects, teacher ratings of children’s total protective factor scores (TPF) significantly increased and ratings of behavior concerns (BC) significantly decreased over the course of the intervention. Boys and students qualifying for special education received lower TPF and higher BC ratings at baseline, yet interactions with time were nonsignificant, suggesting that all students improved according to teacher ratings across time. Observational data showed that teachers in both researcher delivered and local staff-delivered groups substantially increased in their use of positive attention skills following training. Intervention effects, as well as program implementation factors (e.g., teacher attendance, homework completion), were comparable across researcher and school-based staff deliveries, suggesting that school staff were able to implement TCIT effectively. We discuss future research directions for TCIT implementation and
development, as well as practical considerations for partnering with school systems.


Keywords: TCIT; Early Childhood; Teacher–child Relationships; Implementation; Universal Prevention. 

Article: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12310-015-9158-8

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From the clinics to the classrooms: A review of Teacher-Child Interaction Training in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention settings

Fernandez, M. A., Gold, D. C., Hirsch, E., & Miller, S. P. (2015). From the clinics to the classrooms: A review of Teacher-Child Interaction Training in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention settings. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 22, 217-229.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.01.004

Abstract: Without intervention, childhood behavioral problems, including aggression and noncompliance, are likely to continue over the lifespan and adversely affect a child’s functioning across several domains. Based on the early emergence of functional impairment and the established negative trajectory of these difficulties, prevention and early intervention programs are critically important. Interventions for disruptive behavior disorders have primarily focused on parent training. However, given the limited access to evidence-based mental health care in many communities and the significant amount of time children spend in school, researchers and clinicians have explored creative ways to provide interventions in the school setting. Increasing attention has been given to prevention efforts. Discussed below are the results of preliminary studies investigating the effectiveness of teacher training in improving behavior management in the classroom. The teacher training is based on the established efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) for young children with disruptive behavior disorders and their families. This paper reviews the various teacher-child interaction training models that have been used in different settings (e.g., Head Start, general education) and includes discussion of adaptations for the classroom and for consideration in future study.


Keywords: TCIT; Teacher Training; Parent-Child Interaction Therapy; Behavior Management; Disruptive Behavior; Model Adaptation Studies; Review Articles.

Article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1077722914000066?via%3Dihub

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Teacher-Child Interaction Training: A pilot study with random assignment

Fernandez, M. A. (2015). Teacher-Child Interaction Training: A pilot study with random assignment. Behavior Therapy, 46, 463-477.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2015.02.002

Abstract: Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT), adapted from Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), is a classroom-based program designed to provide teachers with behavior management skills that foster positive teacher-student relationships and to improve student behavior by creating a more constructive classroom environment. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate TCIT in more classrooms than previously reported in the literature, with older children than previously reported, using random assignment of classrooms to TCIT or to a no-TCIT control condition and conducting all but two sessions within the classroom enhance feasibility. Participants included 11 kindergarten and first grade classroom teachers and their 118 studnts from three urban, public schools in Manhattan, with five classrooms randomly assigned to recieve TCIT and six to the no-TCIT control condition. Observations of teacher skill acquisition were conducted before, during, and after TCIT for all 11 teachers, and teacher reports of student behavior were obtained at these same time points. Teacher satisfaction with TCIT was assessed following training. Results suggested that after receiving TCIT, teachers increased rates of positive attention to students disruptive behavior, and reported high satisfaction with the training program. Our study supports the growing evidence-based suggesting that TCIT is a promising approach for training teachers in positive behavior management strategies and for improving student disruptive behavior in the classroom.


Keywords: TCIT; Teacher Training; PCIT; Disruptive Behaviors; Classroom Behavior Management.

Article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0005789415000210?via%3Dihub

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Promoting positive interactions in the classroom: Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy as a universal prevention program

Gershenson, R. A., Lyon, A. R., & Budd, K. S. (2010). Promoting positive interactions in the classroom: Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy as a universal prevention program. Education and Treatment of Children, 33, 261-287.
https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.0.0092

Abstract: The adaptation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), an empirically supported dyadic parent training intervention, to a preschool setting may provide an opportunity to enhance the well-being of both teachers and
children by improving the teacher-child relationship and supplying teachers with effective tools for behavior management. The current article describes the development and implementation of a Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT)
program, based on the PCIT model, to a preschool setting serving primarily low-income, urban, ethnic minority youth. We discuss the rationale for applying PCIT as a prevention program, prior research on adaptations of PCIT to educational settings, application of community psychology principles and strategies in adapting PCIT to the classroom, core TCIT program components, evaluation of effectiveness, issues in sustainability, and resources for successfully implementing the program.


Keywords: TCIT; Teacher-Child Interaction Training; Parent-Child Interaction Therapy; PCIT; Community; Teacher Training; Preschool; Disruptive Behavior; Model Adaptation Studies.

Article: https://www.jstor.org/stable/42900066?seq=1

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Effectiveness of Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT) in a preschool setting

Lyon, A. R., Gershenson, R. A., Farahmand, F. K., Thaxter, P. J., Behling, S., & Budd, K. S. (2009). Effectiveness of Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT) in a preschool setting. Behavior Modification, 33, 855-884.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445509344215

Abstract: This research addressed the need for trained child care staff to support optimal early social-emotional development in urban, low-income, ethnic minority children. We evaluated effectiveness of Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT), an approach adapted from Eyberg's Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). TCIT focuses on increasing preschool teachers' positive attention skills and consistent discipline in order to enhance children's psychosocial functioning and prevent mental health problems. A total of 12 teachers participated in small-group workshop sessions with in vivo coaching on their use of skills in the classroom. A multiple-baseline design across four classrooms (3 teachers each) evaluated effects of training on teacher behaviors during weekly classroom observations. Findings indicated systematic increases in trained skills during intervention, and consumer evaluations showed that the training was rated positively. Our results suggest that TCIT is a promising approach for enhancing positive teacher-child interactions in a preschool setting and should receive further investigation.


Keywords: TCIT; Teacher-Child Interaction Training; Parent-Child Interaction Therapy; Community; Teacher Training; Preschool; Disruptive Behavior.

Article: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0145445509344215

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Managing classroom behavior of Head Start children using response cost and token economy procedures

Tiano, J. D., Fortson, B. L., McNeil, C. B., & Humphreys, L. A. (2005). Managing classroom behavior of Head Start children using response cost and token economy procedures. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 2, 28-39. 

Abstract: The efficacy of three behavior management techniques used in a Head Start classroom was examined. The three  techniques included: (a) techniques currently used by the teacher, (b) response cost, and (c) the Level System (token  economy). The current study used an ABACA single subject withdrawal design with follow-up where all conditions  were implemented until stability was reached. Classroom behavior was evaluated by both behavioral observation and  teacher report. Children’s and teacher’s behavior were examined. No conclusions could be made concerning the efficacy  (i.e., inappropriate behavior) of the techniques. Teachers used more labeled praise statements and fewer critical  statements during the Level System condition than all other conditions.


Keywords: PCIT; Model Adaptation Studies; Head Start; Token Systems; Response Cost; Pre-schoolers.

Article: https://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2014-52006-006.html

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Training Head Start teachers in behavior management using Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A preliminary investigation

Tiano, J.D., & McNeil, C.B. (2005). Training Head Start teachers in behavior management using Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Interventions, 3, 230-233.
https://doi.org/10.1037/h0100334

Abstract: The current project evaluated the use of behavior management techniques utilized in Parent- Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in head start classrooms. The sample included seven Head Start classrooms; four classrooms receiving treatment and three classrooms receiving no treatment. Evaluation of the progress included observation of teacher and student behavior and teacher report of class manageability and number of time-outs. Results indicated that child behavior improved throughout the study for both groups. Both groups of teachers also gave fewer timeouts, criticized the children less often, and rated their classes as more manageable from pre- to post-treatment. Teachers receiving training gave more labeled praise following treatment. These findings provide initial support for improving teacher behavior modification skills through the use of PCIT skills modified for Head Start classrooms.


Keywords: TCIT; PCIT; Head Start Programs; Teacher Training; Behavior Modification; Parent-child Interaction Therapy; Child Psychotherapy.

Article: https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-170115161/training-head-start-teachers-in-behavior-management

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Psychometric properties of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory with rural middle school and high school children

Floyd, E. M., Rayfield, A., Eyberg, S. M., & Riley, J. L. (2004). Psychometric properties of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory with rural middle school and high school children. Assessment, 11, 64-72.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191103260945

Abstract: This study examined the psychometric properties of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory (SESBI) in a rural sample of children and adolescents. Thirty-eight 5th- through 12th-grade teachers completed the SESBI on 726 children in their classrooms. High Cronbach's alphas supported the reliability of the SESBI scales in this population. Higher SESBI scores were obtained by boys than girls and by African American students than Caucasian students, more so at lower grades. Teacher's race did not affect SESBI scores. In contrast to children with developmental delay, children with learning disabilities obtained higher scores than others on the SESBI Intensity scale but not on the Problem scale. This suggests that teachers of children with learning disabilities recognize the higher frequency of problem behaviors in their students but do not consider these behaviors to be problems for themselves. On both SESBI scales, children with developmental delay were not distinguishable from peers without developmental delays.


Keywords: TCIT; Measures; Behavior Problems; Disruptive Behavior; Preschool Children; Psychometrics; Rural; Teacher Rating Scale.

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14994955/

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The use of token economies in preschool classrooms: Practical and philosophical concerns

Filcheck, H. A., & McNeil, C. B. (2004). The use of token economies in preschool classrooms: Practical and philosophical concerns. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 1, 94-104. 

Abstract: Behavior problems are increasing in frequency among preschool children. Thus, preschool teachers must be prepared to manage the increasing disruptive behaviors exhibited in their classrooms. Because positive behavioral management strategies are accepted by teachers and have been proven effective, token economies may be promising interventions to manage disruptive behavior in the classroom. However, little research has been conducted in this area. In addition, there are developmental, practical, and philosophical issues that should be considered before token economies are recommended for preschool classrooms. This paper reviews the relevant research in this area and addresses each of these concerns.


Keywords: TCIT; Behavioral Management; Token; Token Economy; Disruptive Behavior.

Article: https://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2014-51987-009.html

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Using a whole-class token economy and coaching of teacher skills in a preschool classroom to manage disruptive behavior

Filcheck, H. A., McNeil, C. B., Greco, L. A., & Bernard, R. S. (2004). Using a whole-class token economy and coaching of teacher skills in a preschool classroom to manage disruptive behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 41, 351-361.
https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.10168

Abstract: The Level System is a whole-classroom approach for managing disruptive behavior that utilizes behavioral management strategies such as a token economy, response cost, stimulating rewards, and strategic attention. Using an ABACC treatment comparison design with follow-up, this study evaluated the effectiveness of the Level System in a preschool classroom compared to (a) strategies already employed by the teacher, and (b) coaching the teacher in the Child-Directed Interaction (CDI) and Parent-Directed Interaction (PDI) phases of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Teacher- and parent-report measures were administered, and behavioral observation data were collected for child and teacher behavior using videotapes. Results suggested that the amount of inappropriate behavior exhibited by children decreased when the Level System was implemented. Additionally, inappropriate behavior decreased further during the CDI and PDI conditions.


Keywords: TCIT; Behavioral Management; Disruptive Behavior; PCIT.

Article: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2004-11395-007

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Psychometric properties of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised with preschool children

Querido, J. G., & Eyberg, S. M. (2003). Psychometric properties of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised with preschool children. Behavior Therapy, 34, 1-15.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(03)80018-7

Abstract: This study evaluated the reliability and validity of a revised teacher rating scale of disruptive behavior with preschool-aged children. The Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised (SESBI-R) was completed by teachers of 74 non-referred preschoolers and 49 children refex'red for evaluation of behavior problems, age 3 to 6. Results of the study demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, testretest stability, and inter-teacher agreement, as well as the absence of systematic bias in scores over repeated administration. Analyses also showed no differences in SESBI-R scores by children's age, gender, or ethnicity. Evidence of convergent, discriminant, incremental, and discriminative validity was demonstrated, in addition to criterion validity for the factor scores of the SESBI-R. The results of this study suggest that the SESBI-R is a promising instrument for measuring classroom behavior problems in preschoolers.


Keywords: TCIT; Teacher-Child Interaction Training; Measures. 

Article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0005789403800187?via%3Dihub

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Psychometric properties and reference point data for the Revised Edition of the School Observation Coding System

Jacobs, J. R., Boggs, S. R., Eyberg, S. M., Edwards, D., Durning, P., Querido, J. G., McNeil, C. B., & Funderburk, B. W. (2000). Psychometric properties and reference point data for the Revised Edition of the School Observation Coding System. Behavior Therapy, 31, 695-712.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(00)80039-8

Abstract: The psychometric properties of a new observation coding system for children's disruptive classroom behavior were evaluated. The Revised Edition of the School Observation Coding System (REDSOCS) was used to observe 51 young children clinic-referred children. Reference point data for the REDSOCS categories with preschoolers were obtained from the sample of nonreferred children. Interobserver reliability and concurrent validity of the three REDSOCS categories with teacher rating scales of oppositional behavior and hyperactivity were demonstrated. Initial evidence of convergent and discriminant validity was established through correlations of the REDSOCS categories with the subscales of the Revised Conners Teacher Rating Scale. Differences in REDSOCS scores between the nonreferred chidren referred for school behavior problems provided evidence of discriminative validity for the REDSOCS categories. The REDSOCS was also found to classify correctly to majority of referred children according to the presence or absence of school behavior problems. The results suggest that the REDSOCS is a promising instrument for measuring disruptive classroom behavior in preschoolers.


Keywords: PCIT; Dyadic Parent Child Interaction Coding System; Revised Edition of the School Observation Coding System; Conduct-disordered behaviors preschool; Revised Conners Teaching Rating Scale; Clinical Disorders; TCIT.

Article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0005789400800398?via%3Dihub

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Parent-child interaction therapy with behavior problem children: Maintenance of treatment effects in the school setting.

Funderburk, B. W., Eyberg, S. M., Newcomb, K., McNeil, C., Hembree-Kigin, T., & Capage, L. (1998). Parent-child interaction therapy with behavior problem children: Maintenance of treatment effects in the school setting. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 20, 17-38. 
https://doi.org/10.1300/J019v20n02_02

Abstract: Evaluated generalization of treatment effects from home to school setting in ten 2- to 7-year-old children who were referred for treatment of severe conduct problem behaviors occurring both at home and in the classroom. Families received 14 weeks of parent-child interaction therapy. No direct classroom interventions were conducted. The treatment group displayed significantly greater improvements than two control groups on all measures of conduct problem behavior in the classroom. Results in the areas of hyperactivity/distractibility and social behavior were less supportive of generalization. Positive school generalization results contradict previous findings that children's behavior in the classroom either shows minimal improvement or worsens following parent training.


Keywords:  PCIT; Clinical Disorders; Conduct Disorder; Follow-up Studies; Longitudinal Research.

Article: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J019v20n02_02

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Revision of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory: Teacher ratings of conduct problem behavior

Rayfield, A., Eyberg, S. M., & Foote, R. (1998). Revision of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory: Teacher ratings of conduct problem behavior. Educational and Psychological Measures, 58, 88-98.  
https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164498058001008

Abstract: The Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory (SESBI), a brief teacher-rating scale of externalizing, or conduct problem behavior at school, was completed by 38 teachers for 726 5th-through 12th-grade students. The inventory contained the original 36 items plus 17 experimental items. Item analyses led to retention of 10 experimental items and deletion of 8 original items with weaker psychometric properties. Scores on this revised, 38-item version of the SESBI had a high coefficient alpha. Factor analyses yielded a two-factor solution representing (a) oppositional behavior and (b) attentional difficulties.


Keywords: TCIT; Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory; Measures.

Article: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0013164498058001008

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Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with behavior problem children: Generalization of treatment effects to the school setting

Funderburk, B., Newcomb, K., McNeil, C. B., Eyberg, S., & Eisenstadt, T. H. (1991). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with behavior problem children: Generalization of treatment effects to the school setting. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 20, 140-151. 
https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2002_5

Abstract: Evaluated generalization of treatment effects from home to school setting in ten 2- to 7-year-old children who were referred for treatment of severe conduct problem behavior occurring both at home and in the classroom interventions were conducted. The treatment group displayed significantly greater improvements than two control groups on all measures of conduct problem behavior in the classroom. Results in the areas of hyperactivity/distractibility and social behavior were less supportive of generalization. Positive school generalization results contradict previous findings that children's behavior in the classroom either shows minimal improvement or worsens following parent training.


Keywords: PCIT; Clinical Disorders; Conduct Disorder; 2-7; Severe Conduct Problem Behavior; Classroom; Positive School Generalization. 

Article: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15374424jccp2002_5

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Further psychometric evaluation of the Eyberg and Behar Rating scales for parents and teachers of preschoolers

Funderburk, B. W., Eyberg, S. M., Rich, B. A., & Behard, L. (2003). Further psychometric evaluation of the Eyberg and Behar Rating scales for parents and teachers of preschoolers. Early Education & Development, 14, 67-80.
https://doi.org/10.1207/s15566935eed1401_5

Abstract: The psychometric properties of two parent behavior rating scales, the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) and the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire - Parent-Completed (PBQ-P), and two teacher rating scales, the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory (SESBI) and the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire-Teacher-Completed (PBQ-T) were examined in a homogeneous community sample of 88 preschool children between 2 and 6 years of age.
Research findings: Internal consistency was established for the two newer measures, the SESBI and the PBQ-T, and test-restest stability was demonstrated for all measures. The first evidence of long-term (10-month) retest stability was obtained for the ECBI. Convergent validity between the two parent measures and the two teacher measures was shown as well. In contrast to findings on the parent rating scales, the teacher ratings evidenced significant child sex effects, with boys rated as having more behavior problems than girls in this preschool sample. 
Practice: For use in screening for behavior problems, these four instruments are capable of relatively fine discriminations among children. For use in treatment, the evidence of stability without intervention lends confidence to findings of change after treatment on these instruments, although a routine second administration of the PBQ-T at baseline is recommended.
There are few standardized instruments for assessing child behavior during the preschool years, and the results of this study add to the evidence of construct validity for these four rating scales of child behavior problems in preschoolers.


Keywords: PCIT; Measures; General Outcome Studies. 

Article: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15566935eed1401_5