International & Cultural

Articles

Efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese ADHD children: Randomized controlled trial (abstract)

Leung, C., Tsang, S., Ng, G. S. H., & Choi, S. Y. (2017). 

The development and evaluation of a natural helpers’ training program to increase the engagement of urban, Latina/o families in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (abstract)

Barnett, M. L., Davis, E., Callejas, L., White, J., Acevedo-Polakovich, I., Niec, L. N., & Jent, J. (2016). 

Cultural adaptation and implementation of evidence-based parent-training: A systematic review and critique of guiding evidence (abstract)

Baumann, A. A., Powell, B. J., Kohl, P. L., Tabak, R. G., Penalba, V., Proctor, E. E., Domenech-Rodriguez, M. M., & Cabassa, L. J. (2015). 

The efficacy of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese families: Randomized controlled trial (abstract)

Leung, C., Tsang, S., Sin, T. C., & Choi, S. Y. (2015). 

Exploring the role of natural helpers in efforts to address disparities for children with conduct problems (abstract)

Acevedo-Polakovich, I. D., Niec, L. N., Barnett, M. L., Bell, K. M., Aguilar, G., Vilca, J., Abbenante-Honold, E. S., Christian, A. S., & Peer, S. O. (2014). 

Working together to solve disparities: Latina/o parents' contributions to the adaptation of a preventive intervention for childhood conduct problems (abstract)

Niec, L. N., Acevedo-Polakovich, I. D., Abbenante-Honold, E., Christian, A. S., Barnett, M. L., Aguilar, G., & Peer, S. O. (2014). 

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Mexican Americans: Results of a pilot randomized clinical trial at follow-up (abstract)

McCabe, K., Yeh, M., Lau, A., & Argote, C. B. (2012). 

Parent–Child Interaction Therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands (abstract)

Abrahamse, M. E., Junger, M., Chavannes, E., Coelman, F. G., Boer, F., & Lindauer, R. L. (2012). 

Rationale and modifications for implementing Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with rural Appalachian parents (abstract)

Taubenheim, A., & Tiano, J. D. (2012). 

Acceptability of behavioral family therapy among caregivers in China (abstract)

Yu, J., Roberts, M., Wong, M., & Shen, Y. (2011). 

Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) among Chinese families (abstract)

Leung, C., Tsang, S., Heung, K., & Yiu, I. (2009). 

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Mexican Americans: A randomized clinical trial (abstract)

McCabe, K., & Yeh, M. (2009). 

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Puerto Rican preschool children with ADHD and behavior problems: A pilot efficacy study (abstract)

Matos, M., Bauermeister, J. J., Bernal, G. (2009). 

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with an immigrant family exposed to domestic violence (abstract)

Pearl, E.S. (2008). 

Pilot evaluation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy delivered in an Australian community early childhood clinic setting (abstract)

Phillips, J., Morgan, S., Cawthorne, K., & Barnett, B. (2008). 

Adaptation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Puerto Rican families: A preliminary study (abstract)

Matos, M., Torres, R., Santiago, R., Jurado, M., & Rodríguez, I. (2006). 

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and ethnic minority children. (abstract)

Butler, A. M., & Eyberg, S. M. (2006). 

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with a Spanish-speaking family (abstract)

Borrego, J. J., Anhalt, K., Terao, S. Y., Vargas, E. C., & Urquiza, A. J. (2006). 

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in Norway (abstract)

Bjorseth, A., & Wormdal, A. K. (2005). 

A comparison between African American and Caucasian children referred for treatment of disruptive behavior disorders (abstract)

Capage, L. C., Bennett, G. M., & McNeil, C. B. (2001). 

Inventario Eyberg del comportamiento en niños. Normalización de la versión española y su utilidad para el pediatra extrahospitalario (abstract)

García-Tornel, S., Calzada, E. J., Eyberg, S. M., Mas Alguacil, J. C., Vilamala, C., Baraza, C., Villena, H., González, M., Calvo, M., & Trinxant, A. (1998). 

Efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese ADHD children: Randomized controlled trial

Leung, C., Tsang, S., Ng, G. S. H., & Choi, S. Y. (2017). Efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese ADHD children: Randomized controlled trial. Research on Social Work Practice, 27, 36-47.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731516643837

Abstract: Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in Chinese children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD features. 
Methods: This study adopted a randomized controlled trial design without blinding. Participants were randomized into either the intervention group (n ¼ 32) and offered PCIT by trained PCIT practitioners or the waitlist control group (n ¼ 32) and offered PCIT after the intervention group had completed treatment.  Parent participants were requested to complete questionnaires on their children’s behavior and their parental stress. PCIT practitioners observed parent–child interactions according to a coding system. 
Results: Analysis was by intention to treat.  The results indicated a significant decrease in child behavior and attention problems, parental stress, and negative parenting practices and an increase in positive parenting practices in the intervention group at post intervention (p .002 in  all cases). 
Conclusion: This study provided promising evidence on the effectiveness of PCIT in Chinese children with ADHD or ADHD features.  


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research; ADHD; Intervention; Parent Training; Clinical Disorders.

Article: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1049731516643837

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The development and evaluation of a natural helpers’ training program to increase the engagement of urban, Latina/o families in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy

Barnett, M. L., Davis, E., Callejas, L., White, J., Acevedo-Polakovich, I., Niec, L. N., & Jent, J. (2016). The development and evaluation of a natural helpers’ training program to increase the engagement of urban, Latina/o families in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy. Children & Youth Services Review, 65, 17-25. 

Abstract: Latina/o immigrant children are at increased risk for developing conduct disorders, and are simultaneously less likely to access services. Natural helpers are uniquely positioned to promote effective parent training programs to address service disparities in these communities. This study describes one effort to train natural helpers to increase engagement in parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), an evidence-based parent training program. An academic-community partnership prompted the development and evaluation of this natural helpers training program. Five natural helpers were trained to recruit Latina/o families into PCIT, address barriers to treatment, and support parents' skill development. Over the course of training, natural helpers increased their knowledge of PCIT and their ability to use and model treatment targeted parenting skills. Additional consultation was necessary to improve the natural helpers' abilities to conduct behavioral observations of parent skill use and provide feedback on these skills. Natural helpers expressed overall satisfaction with PCIT and the training program. Suggestions for incorporating natural helpers into PCIT services are discussed based on the strengths and challenges identified from the evaluation of this training program.


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research; Natural Helpers; Disparities; Engagement; Parent Training. 

Article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0190740916300871

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Cultural adaptation and implementation of evidence-based parent-training: A systematic review and critique of guiding evidence

Baumann, A. A., Powell, B. J., Kohl, P. L., Tabak, R. G., Penalba, V., Proctor, E. E., Domenech-Rodriguez, M. M., & Cabassa, L. J. (2015). Cultural adaptation and implementation of evidence-based parent-training: A systematic review and critique of guiding evidence. Children and Youth Services Review, 53, 113-120.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2015.03.025

Abstract: With advances in knowledge regarding efficacious evidence-based interventions, there have been significant attempts to culturally adapt, implement, and disseminate parent training interventions broadly, especially across ethnic and cultural groups. We sought to examine the extent to which researchers and developers of evidence-based parent training programs have used cultural adaptation models, tested implementation strategies, and evaluated implementation outcomes when integrating the interventions into routine care by conducting a systematic review of the literature for four evidence-based parent training interventions: Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), The Incredible Years (IY), Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO™), and the Positive Parenting Program (Triple P). A total of 610 articles across the four programs were identified. Of those, only eight documented a rigorous cultural adaptation process, and only two sought to test the effectiveness of implementation strategies by using rigorous research designs. Our findings suggest that there is much work to be done to move parent-training intervention research towards a more rigorous examination of cultural adaptation and implementation practices.


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research; Parent Training Programs; Implementation Research; Cultural Adaptation; Evidence-Based Practice.

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25960585/

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The efficacy of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese families: Randomized controlled trial

Leung, C., Tsang, S., Sin, T. C., & Choi, S. Y. (2015). The efficacy of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese families: Randomized controlled trial. Research on Social Work Practice, 25, 117-128. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731513519827

Abstract: (PCIT) in Hong Kong Chinese families, using randomized controlled trial design. 
Methods: The participants included 111 Hong Kong Chinese parents with children aged 2–7 years old, who were randomized into the intervention group (n ¼ 54) and control group (n ¼ 57). The participants were requested to complete a set of questionnaires on child behavior problems and parenting before and after intervention. They were also assessed by PCIT therapists using Dyadic Parent–Child Interaction Coding System: Abbreviated Version (3rd edition) before and after intervention. Results: The results indicated significant decrease in child behavior problems, parenting stress, negative emotions, negative parenting practices, and increase in positive parenting practices in the intervention group, compared with the control group. Conclusion: The results provided encouraging evidence that the PCIT was effective with Hong Kong Chinese families.


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research; RCT; Outcome Study; Children; Parenting; Dyadic Parent Child Interaction Coding System.

Article: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1049731513519827

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Exploring the role of natural helpers in efforts to address disparities for children with conduct problems

Acevedo-Polakovich, I. D., Niec, L. N., Barnett, M. L., Bell, K. M., Aguilar, G., Vilca, J., Abbenante-Honold, E. S., Christian, A. S., & Peer, S. O. (2014). Exploring the role of natural helpers in efforts to address disparities for children with conduct problems. Children and Youth Services Review, 40, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.02.010

Abstract: : Background: Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or significantly reduced at an early age, the trajectory of these behavioural problems leading to adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems. Recently, PCIT was implemented in a Dutch community mental health setting. This present study aims to examine the short-term effects of PCIT on reducing the frequency of disruptive behaviour in young children. Methods: This study is based on the data of 37 referred families. Whereby the results of which are derived from an analysis of parent reports of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), obtained during each therapeutic session. Furthermore, demographic information, extracted from client files, was also utilized. However, it must be noted that eleven families (27.5%) dropped out of treatment before the treatment protocol was completed. To investigate the development of disruptive behaviour, a non-clinical comparison group was recruited from primary schools (N = 59). Results: The results of this study indicate that PCIT significantly reduces disruptive behaviour in children. Large effect sizes were found for both fathers and mothers reported problems (d = 1.88, d = 1.99, respectively), which is similar to American outcome studies. At post treatment, no differences were found concerning the frequency of behavioural problems of children who completed treatment and those who participated in the non-clinical comparison group. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that PCIT is potentially an effective intervention strategy for young children and their parents in the Dutch population. However, further research into the evaluation of PCIT using a randomised controlled trial is recommendable.


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research; Conduct Problems; Disparities; Natural Helpers; Prevention; Parent Training. 

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24910488/

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Working together to solve disparities: Latina/o parents' contributions to the adaptation of a preventive intervention for childhood conduct problems

Niec, L. N., Acevedo-Polakovich, I. D., Abbenante-Honold, E., Christian, A. S., Barnett, M. L., Aguilar, G., & Peer, S. O. (2014). Working together to solve disparities: Latina/o parents' contributions to the adaptation of a preventive intervention for childhood conduct problems. Psychological Services, 11, 410-420.
https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036200

Abstract: : Left untreated, conduct problems can have significant and long-lasting negative effects on children's development. Despite the existence of many effective interventions, U.S. Latina/o children are less likely to access or receive evidence-based services. Seeking to build the foundation to address these service disparities, the current study used a Community-Based Participatory Research approach to examine U.S. Latina/o parents' perceptions of the need for interventions to prevent childhood disruptive behaviors in their community in general, and of an existing evidence-based intervention-parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT)-in particular. Results suggest that parents recognize a need for prevention resources in their community and value most of the core features of PCIT. Nevertheless, important directions for potential adaptation and expansion of PCIT into a prevention approach were identified. Results point to several goals for future study with the potential to ameliorate the unmet mental health needs experienced by U.S. Latina/o families with young children at risk for developing conduct problems.


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research; Conduct Problems; Disparities; Prevention; Parent Training. 

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25383995/

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Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Mexican Americans: Results of a pilot randomized clinical trial at follow-up

McCabe, K., Yeh, M., Lau, A., & Argote, C. B. (2012). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Mexican Americans: Results of a pilot randomized clinical trial at follow-up. Behavior Therapy, 43, 606-618.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2011.11.001

Abstract: We examined treatment effects over a 6- to 24-month period posttreatment for 3 different interventions for externalizing behavior problems in young Mexican American (MA) children: a culturally modified version of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), called Guiando a Niños Activos (GANA), standard PCIT, and treatment as usual (TAU). Fifty-eight MA families with a 3- to 7-year-old child with clinically significant behavior problems were randomly assigned to GANA, standard PCIT, or TAU. As previously reported, all three treatment approaches produced significant pre-post improvement in conduct problems across a wide variety of parent-report measures, and those effects remained significant over the follow-up period. GANA produced results that were significantly superior to TAU on 6 out of 10 parent-report measures 6 to 24months posttreatment, and GANA significantly outperformed PCIT on child internalizing symptoms. However, PCIT and TAU did not differ significantly from one another. These data suggest that both PCIT and GANA produce treatment gains that are maintained over time, and that GANA continues to outperform TAU over the long term.


Keywords: : PCIT; International & Cultural Research; Acculturation; Adult; Behavior Therapy; Child; Child Behavior Disorders; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Male; Mexican Americans; Parent-Child Relations; Model Adaptation Studies – GANA. 

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22697448/

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Parent–Child Interaction Therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

Abrahamse, M. E., Junger, M., Chavannes, E., Coelman, F. G., Boer, F., & Lindauer, R. L. (2012). Parent–Child Interaction Therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 6, 1-9.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1753-2000-6-24

Abstract: Background: Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or significantly reduced at an early age, the trajectory of these behavioural problems leading to adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems. Recently, PCIT was implemented in a Dutch community mental health setting. This present study aims to examine the short-term effects of PCIT on reducing the frequency of disruptive behaviour in young children. Methods: This study is based on the data of 37 referred families. Whereby the results of which are derived from an analysis of parent reports of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), obtained during each therapeutic session. Furthermore, demographic information, extracted from client files, was also utilized. However, it must be noted that eleven families (27.5%) dropped out of treatment before the treatment protocol was completed. To investigate the development of disruptive behaviour, a non-clinical comparison group was recruited from primary schools (N = 59). Results: The results of this study indicate that PCIT significantly reduces disruptive behaviour in children. Large effect sizes were found for both fathers and mothers reported problems (d = 1.88, d = 1.99, respectively), which is similar to American outcome studies. At post treatment, no differences were found concerning the frequency of behavioural problems of children who completed treatment and those who participated in the non-clinical comparison group. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that PCIT is potentially an effective intervention strategy for young children and their parents in the Dutch population. However, further research into the evaluation of PCIT using a randomised controlled trial is recommendable.


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research; Disruptive Behavior Problems; Preschoolers; Parent Training; Psychotherapy. 

Article: https://capmh.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1753-2000-6-24

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Rationale and modifications for implementing Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with rural Appalachian parents

Taubenheim, A., & Tiano, J. D. (2012). Rationale and modifications for implementing Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with rural Appalachian parents. Journal for Rural Mental Health, 36, 16-26.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0095811

Abstract: This article describes the rationale and modifications for implementing parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) with rural Appalachian parents. (PCIT) is an intervention designed for parents with children ages two through six who exhibit emotional and behavioral issues. PCIT differs from other behavioral programs in that both the child and parent are directly involved in treatment, parents are coached in their use of parenting skills directly during session, and homework assignments are given to build upon gains made in session. PCIT first seeks to rebuild the parent-child relationship through the development of a secure attachment and then integrates discipline to decrease behavioral problems and increase positive child behaviors. This is done through the use of two separate segments: Child-directed interaction (CDI), which aims to increase parental praise, reflection, description, and imitation of child behaviors, and enthusiasm, with the goal of forming a secure attachment between the child and parent, and parent-directed interaction (PDI), in which child behavioral problems are addressed by providing parents with the education and skills (e.g., time-out) necessary to increase child compliance and decrease problem behaviors. Topics discussed include (1) barriers to treatment, (2) externalizing child behavior problems, (3) behavioral parent training programs, (4) cultural modifications to PCIT, (5) alignment of PCIT with Appalachian culture, (6) and Appalachian cultural modifications to PCIT.


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research; Treatment Barriers; Externalizing Behaviors; Cultural Modification; Rural; Underserved Areas; Low-Income; Mental Healthcare Shortage.

Article: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2013-14906-004

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Acceptability of behavioral family therapy among caregivers in China

Yu, J., Roberts, M., Wong, M., & Shen, Y. (2011). Acceptability of behavioral family therapy among caregivers in China. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 272-278.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-010-9388-1

Abstract: In the U.S., helping the noncompliant child and parent child interaction therapy represent behavioral family therapy programs that are empirically supported for treating the conduct problems of 2- to 7-year old children.  This study examined how caregivers in China would view behavioral family therapy. Caregivers in Hangzhou, China reported the perceived age of deviance for behavioral family therapy targets (e.g., noncompliance) and rated the acceptability of behavioral treatment components (e.g., timeout). Chinese caregivers agreed with European- American culture on considering noncompliance, aggression, tantrums, and negative talk deviant during the preschool period. Overall, Chinese caregivers considered all  the following nine behavioral family therapy components  acceptable: contingent praise, responsive play, ignoring  deviant attention seeking, authoritative instruction-giving,  warnings, chair timeouts, ignoring tantrums during timeout,  room backups for chair timeouts, and immediate  timeouts for aggression. However, specific parental reservations were found regarding backup procedures for chair timeouts, particularly room backups. Possible treatment accommodations of behavioral family therapy for Chinese families are discussed.  


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research; Clinical Disorders - Conduct Disorder; Behavioral Family Therapy; Disruptive Child Behavior; Treatment Acceptability; Cultural Accommodations; China.

Article: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10826-010-9388-1

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Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) among Chinese families

Leung, C., Tsang, S., Heung, K., & Yiu, I. (2009). Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) among Chinese families. Research on Social Work Practice, 19, 304-313.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731508321713

Abstract: Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) among Chinese parents and  children in Hong Kong with significant behavior problems. Method: The participants (intervention group, 48; comparison  group, 62) completed questionnaires on child behavior problems and parenting stress before and after intervention.  
Results:  Univariate analysis of covariance, with preintervention scores as covariates, showed the intervention group participants  reported fewer child behavior problems and parenting stress postintervention than the comparison group participants. The  observational data demonstrated a decrease in inappropriate child-management strategies and an increase in positive parenting  practices following intervention. The intervention group participants generally maintained the changes 3 to 6 months  after program completion. Conclusions: Cultural issues related to PCIT and culturally appropriate intervention strategies  were discussed.  


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research; Child Behavior; Parenting;  Chinese.

Article: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1049731508321713

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Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Mexican Americans: A randomized clinical trial

McCabe, K., & Yeh, M. (2009). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Mexican Americans: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38, 753-759.
https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410903103544

Abstract: This study compared the effectiveness of a culturally modified version of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), called Guiando a Ninos Activos (GANA), to the effectiveness of standard PCIT and Treatment as Usual (TAU) for young Mexican Amerian children with behavior problems. Fifty-eight Mexican Amerian families whose 3- to 7-year-old child had a clinically significant behavior problems were randomly assigned to GANA, standard PCIT, or TAU. All three treatment approaches produced significant pre-post improvement in conduct problems across a wide variety of parent-report measures. GANA produced results that were significantly superior to TAU across a wide variety of both parent report and observational indices; however, GANA and PCIT did not differ significantly from one another. PCIT was superior to TAU on two of the parent report indices and almost all of the observational indices. There were no significant differences between the three groups on treatment dropout, and families were more satisfied with both GANA and PCIT than with TAU.


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research; Model Adaptation Studies – GANA; General Outcome Studies. 

Article: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15374410903103544

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Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Puerto Rican preschool children with ADHD and behavior problems: A pilot efficacy study

Matos, M., Bauermeister, J. J., Bernal, G. (2009). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Puerto Rican preschool children with ADHD and behavior problems: A pilot efficacy study. Family Process, 48, 232-252.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2009.01279.x

Abstract: This study evaluates the initial efficacy of the Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) for Puerto Rican preschool children aged 4-6 years with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined or predominantly hyperactive type, and significant behavior problems. Thirty-two families were randomly assigned to PCIT (n = 20) or a 3.5-month waiting-list condition (WL; n = 12). Participants from both groups completed pretreatment and posttreatment assessments. Outcome measures included child's ADHD symptoms and behavior problems, parent or family functioning, and parents' satisfaction with treatment. ANCOVAs with pretreatment measures entered as covariates were significant for all posttreatment outcomes, except mother's depression, and in the expected direction (p < .01). Mothers reported a highly significant reduction in pretreatment hyperactivity and inattention and less aggressive and oppositional-defiant behaviors, conduct problems assessed as problematic, parenting stress associated with their child's behavior, and an increase in the use of adequate parenting practices. For the WL group, there were no clinically significant changes in any measure. Treatment gains obtained after treatment were maintained at a 3.5-month follow-up assessment. PCIT seems to be an efficacious intervention for Puerto Rican families who have young children with significant behavior problems.


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research; Clinical Disorders; ADHD; Preschool Children; Parent Training; Latino Families.

Article: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2009.01279.x

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Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with an immigrant family exposed to domestic violence 

Pearl, E.S. (2008). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with an immigrant family exposed to domestic violence. Clinical Case Studies, 7, 25-41.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1534650107300939

Abstract: Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) is an empirically supported treatment to enhance the parent-child relationship and to help parents learn how to effectively manage disruptive behavior in young children. PCIT has been shown to be effective with various populations. However, few reports have documented its use with children exposed to domestic violence in families who have recently immigrated to the United States. A mother and 3-year old child who immigrated to the United States from Africa were identified as an appropriate family for PCIT. The child had reportedly been exposed to domestic violence and presented with both internalizing and externalizing behaviors and symptoms. Specific challenges and successes related to this case are presented.


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research; Child Maltreatment; Domestic Violence; Immigrant Family; Clinical Disorders - Internalizing/Externalizing. 

Article: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1534650107300939

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Pilot evaluation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy delivered in an Australian community early childhood clinic setting

Phillips, J., Morgan, S., Cawthorne, K., & Barnett, B. (2008). Pilot evaluation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy delivered in an Australian community early childhood clinic setting. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 712-719.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00048670802206320

Abstract: Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) is a short-term, evidence-based parent training intervention used widely in the treatment of behaviourally disordered preschool-aged children. Outcome studies have shown PCIT to be associated with lasting improvements in child and sibling behaviours and in the interactional styles, stress levels, confidence, and psychological functioning of parents. To date, however, all outcome studies have been conducted in university research clinic settings, and therefore understanding about the effectiveness of PCIT applied in a real-world setting has been limited. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of PCIT delivered to families in an Australian community-based early childhood clinic. Participants included 43 families with children aged 19-52 months who were referred for treatment of disruptive child behaviours and who completed PCIT treatment at the Karitane Toddler Clinic, in Sydney, Australia. Parents provided pre- and post-treatment ratings of child behaviours, parental stress, parental psychopathology and parental attitudes to therapy. At the end of the programme, clinically and statistically significant improvements were seen in child behaviours and parental well-being, and parents reported high levels of satisfaction with treatment. Implications for the implementation of PCIT programmes in community-based settings are discussed and areas of further research are identified.


Keywords: : PCIT; International & Cultural Research; Child Psychology; Disruptive Behavior Disorder; Parent-Child Relationship; Parenting; Treatment Outcome. 

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18622779/

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Adaptation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Puerto Rican families: A preliminary study

Matos, M., Torres, R., Santiago, R., Jurado, M., & Rodríguez, I. (2006). Adaptation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Puerto Rican families: A preliminary study. Family Process, 45, 205-222.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2006.00091.x

Abstract: This study examines how parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) was adapted for Puerto Rican parents of children aged 4-6 with hyperactivity and other significant behavior problems. Four steps were followed: (1) translation and preliminary adaptation of the treatment manual, (2) application of the treatment to 9 families as part of an exploratory study using repeated measures, (3) treatment revision and refinement, and (4) in-depth interviews with parents (n=15) and clinical psychologists (n=5) from Puerto Rico who provided feedback on treatment process and components. Throughout this process, cultural elements and modifications were recommended to be incorporated into the treatment protocol. Both quantitative and qualitative results suggest that PCIT seems to be an acceptable intervention for this population, with some minor changes. Parents reported a high level of satisfaction, a significant reduction in children's externalizing behavior problems, and reduction of parenting stress and improvement in their parenting practices. Psychologists also evaluated positively the treatment protocol and recommended its use. Results from this study may inform clinicians and researchers who work with Latino families about relevant issues to be considered to promote their participation in behavioral family interventions and to enhance their acceptability and effectiveness.


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research; Adaptation, Physiological; Adult; Child; Child Behavior Disorders; Child, Preschool; Culture; Family Therapy; Female; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Male; Parent-Child Relations; Psychomotor Agitation; Puerto Rico; Surveys and Questionnaires. 

Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16768019/

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Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and ethnic minority children.

Butler, A. M., & Eyberg, S. M. (2006). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and ethnic minority children. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 3, 246-255.
https://doi.org/10.1080/17450120600973577

Abstract: Disruptive behaviours constitute the most frequent reason for referral of young children to mental health services. Parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT) is a theoretically grounded, assessment-driven, empirically supported treatment for children with disruptive behaviour disorders. PCIT is based on Baumrind’s research demonstrating positive outcomes for children of parents with an authoritative parenting style. The child-directed interaction phase of PCIT focuses on strengthening the parent–child bond and increasing positive parenting. The parent-directed interaction phase focuses on increasing parental consistency, predictability and fairness in discipline. This article presents an overview of PCIT and highlights PCIT research with ethnic minority children.


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research; Ethnic Minority; Conduct Problems; Racial Minority; Parent Training; Disruptive Behavior; Empirically Supported Treatment; Child.

Article: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17450120600973577

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Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with a Spanish-speaking family

Borrego, J. J., Anhalt, K., Terao, S. Y., Vargas, E. C., & Urquiza, A. J. (2006). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with a Spanish-speaking family. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 13, 121-133. 

Abstract: There is relatively little information on the treatment effectiveness of child behavior-management programs with Spanish-speaking populations. Though there are several empirically supported treatments available in English, research on the applicability of these programs in Spanish is virtually nonexistent. This single-case study discusses the application of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) with a Spanish-speaking mother-child dyad to address the child’s externalizing behavior problems. Both observational and parent self-report data are presented. Results suggest that PCIT was effective in increasing positive parent behaviors, decreasing child behavior problems, and reducing parental stress level. Implications for future clinical and research work with Spanish-speaking families are discussed.


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research.

Article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S107772290600023X

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Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in Norway

Bjorseth, A., & Wormdal, A. K. (2005). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in Norway. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening, 42, 693-699. 

Abstract: Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an empirically validated treatment model designed to aid young children with behavioral problems. Few clinicians are familiar with this model in Norway. This article presents a clinical case where PCIT was used as the basis for treatment. It describes how this model has been implemented in regional child and adolescent policlinics in Norway. The authors conclude that PCIT is easily adapted to Norwegian conditions. The model provides a highly effective base from which to treat behavioral problems. It seems best suited for treating young children in policlinic settings. Further research based on PCIT is needed in Norway.


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research.

Article: https://psykologtidsskriftet.no/fagartikkel/2005/08/parent-child-interaction-therapy-med-terapeuten-pa-oret

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A comparison between African American and Caucasian children referred for treatment of disruptive behavior disorders

Capage, L. C., Bennett, G. M., & McNeil, C. B. (2001). A comparison between African American and Caucasian children referred for treatment of disruptive behavior disorders. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 23, 1-13.
https://doi.org/10.1300/J019v23n01_01

Abstract: To develop more culturally sensitive treatments for child behavior problems it is important to examine the impact that ethnicity has on behavioral assessment, diagnosis and treatment. The current study investigated archival data of African American and Caucasian families referred for treatment of disruptive behavior problems. Subjects were 56 children between the ages of 35 and 90 months (M=64 months). Half of the participants were African American (n= 28) and half were Caucasian (n= 28). Subjects from the two groups were matched on age, gender, income, and treatment location. Following the completion of pretreatment assessments (e.g., Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, Parenting Stress Index), subjects and their parent(s) received treatment using Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). No significant differences between groups were found on the pretreatment measures or measures of treatment outcome. Results are discussed with respect to the importance of considering cultural issues when assessing child behavior disorders and providing parent training.


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research; African American Children; Parent Training; Race; Cultural Issues; Disruptive Behavior Disorders

Article: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J019v23n01_01

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Eyberg inventory of behavior in children: standardization of the Spanish version and its usefulness for the out-of-hospital pediatrician

García-Tornel, S., Calzada, E. J., Eyberg, S. M., Mas Alguacil, J. C., Vilamala, C., Baraza, C., Villena, H., González, M., Calvo, M., & Trinxant, A. (1998). Inventario Eyberg del comportamiento en niños. Normalización de la versión española y su utilidad para el pediatra extrahospitalario. Anales Españoles de Pediatria, 48, 475-482. 

Abstract: Objective: Taking into account the high prevalence of behavioral problems in the pediatric outpatient clinic, a need for a useful and easy to administer tool for the evaluation of this problem arises. The psychometric characteristics of the Spanish version of the Eyberg Behavioral Child Inventory (EBCI), [in Spanish Inventario de Eyberg para el Comportamiento del Niño (IECN)], a 36-item questionnaire were established.


Patients and methods: The ECBI inventory/questionnaire was translated into Spanish. The basis of the ECBI is the evaluation of the child´s behavior through the parents’ answers to the questionnaire. Healthy children between 2 and 12 years of age were included and were taken from pediatric outpatient clinics from urban and suburban areas of Barcelona and from our hospital’s own ambulatory clinic.


Results: The final sample included 518 subjects. The mean score on the intensity scale was 96.8 and on the problem scale 3.9. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) was 0.73 and the test-retest had an r of 0.89 (p<0.001) for the intensity scale and r = 0.93 (p<0.001) for the problem scale. Interrater reliability for the intensity scale was r = 0.58 (p<0.001) and r = 0.32 (p<0.001) for the problem scale. Concurrent validity between both scales was r = 0.343  (p<0.001).

Conclusions: The IECN is a useful and easy tool to apply in the pediatrician’s office as a method for early detection of behavior problems.


Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research; Child Behavior; Questionnaire; Mass Screening; Psychometrics; Ambulatory Care.

Article: https://www.aeped.es/anales/48/5/inventario-eyberg-comportamiento-en-ninos-normalizacion-version

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