Home-Based vs. Clinic-Based Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Comparative Effectiveness in the Context of Dissemination and Implementation (abstract)
Fowles, T. R., Masse, J. J., McGoron, L., Beveridge, R. M., Williamson, A. A., Smith, M. A., & Parrish, B. P. (2018)
French, A. N., Yates, B. T., & Fowles, T. R. (2018).
Home-based preventive parenting intervention for at-risk infants and their families: An open trial (abstract)
Bagner, D. M., Rodríguez, G. M., Blake, C. A., & Rosa-Olivares, J. (2013)
Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy delivered to at-risk families in the home setting (abstract)
Galanter, R., Self-Brown, S., Valente, J. R., Dorsey, S., Whitaker, D. J., Bertuglia-Haley, M., & Prieto, M. (2012)
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in a community setting: Examining outcomes, attrition, and treatment setting (abstract)
Lanier, P., Kohl, P. L., Benz, J., Swinger, D., Moussette, P., & Drake, B. (2011)
Telehealth Services (iPCIT)
Remotely Delivering Real-Time Parent Training to the Home: An Initial Randomized Trial of Internet-Delivered Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (I-PCIT) (abstract)
Comer, J. S., Furr, J. M., Miguel, E. M., Carpenter, A. L., Kerns, C. E., DeSerisy, M., Myers, K. M., Cooper-Vince, C. E., Elkins, R. M., Cornacchio, D., Chou, T., Coxe, S., Sanchez, A. L., Golik, A., Martin, J., & Chase, R. (2017).
Adapting internet-delivered Parent-Child Interaction Therapy to treat co-occurring disruptive behavior and callous-unemotional traits: A case study (abstract)
Fleming, G. E., Kimonis, E. R., Datyner, A., & Comer, J. S. (2017)
Comer, J. S., Furr, J. M., Cooper-Vince, C., Madigan, R. J., Chow, C., Chan, P. T., Idrobo, F., Chase, R. M., McNeil, C. B., & Eyberg, S. M. (2015)
Effectiveness of group format Parent-Child Interaction Therapy compared to treatment as usual in a community outreach organization (abstract)
Foley, K., McNeil, C. B., Norman, M., & Wallace, N. M. (2016)
Group Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A randomized control trial for the treatment of conduct problems in young children (abstract)
Niec, L. N., Barnett, M. L., Prewett, M. S., & Shanley Chatham, J.R. (2016)
Condensing Parent Training: A Randomized Trial Comparing the Efficacy of a Briefer, More Intensive Version of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (I-PCIT). (abstract)
Graziano, P. A., Ros-Demarize, R., & Hare, M. M. (2020).
Graziano, P. A., Bagner, D. M., Slavec, J., Hungerford, G., Kent, K., Babinski, D., & Pasalich, D. (2014)
Berkovits, M. D., O'Brien, K. A., Carter, C. G., & Eyberg, S. M. (2010)
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: One- and two-year follow-up of standard and abbreviated treatments for oppositional preschoolers (abstract)
Nixon, R. D., Sweeney, L., Erickson, D. B., & Touyz, S. W. (2004)
Child-Adult Relationship Enhancement in Primary Care (PriCare): A randomized trial of parent training for child behavior problems (abstract)
Schilling, S., French, B., Berkowitz, S. J. Dougherty, S. L., Scribano, P. V., & Wood, J. N. (2017)
An evaluation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with and without motivational enhancement to reduce attrition (abstract)
Webb, H. J., Thomas, R., McGregor, L., Avdagic, E., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2016)
Home-Based vs. Clinic-Based Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Comparative Effectiveness in the Context of Dissemination and Implementation
Fowles, T. R., Masse, J. J., McGoron, L., Beveridge, R. M., Williamson, A. A., Smith, M. A., & Parrish, B. P. (2018). Home-Based vs. Clinic-Based Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Comparative Effectiveness in the Context of Dissemination and Implementation. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 27(4), 1115–1129. 10.1007/s10826-017-0958-3
Abstract: Disruptive child behavior disorders remain a major public health issue despite the proliferation of several strong Evidence-Based Practices (EBPs) for these children and their families. This may stem from barriers to treatment facing many families in need, particularly families with low resources. Home-based treatment may be best suited for this population; however, EBPs are not always available or tested as home-based interventions. The current study compares an intensive home-based adaptation of Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) to the standard clinic-based model in the context of a statewide implementation. As part of the statewide implementation, therapists entered archival data into an online system. Data was gathered for 314 families receiving PCIT, with 181 children in clinic-based PCIT and 133 in intensive home-based PCIT. Consistent with other trials of PCIT, results of the current study indicate that both versions of the therapy were effective in reducing child-behavior problems and increasing parenting skills; however, there were marked differences in attrition. Intensive home-based participants were twice as likely to complete treatment (64.66%) compared to clinic-based participants (33.15%) despite facing more adversity. These results underscore the importance of scientifically-sound adaptations of EBPs, as well as the role of comparative effectiveness studies as a critical tool in the integrative model of intervention science.
Keywords: Disruptive behavior problems; Dissemination and implementation; Evaluation; Evidence-based practice; Home-based treatment; PCIT.
Cost-Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in Clinics versus Homes: Client, Provider, Administrator, and Overall Perspectives
French, A. N., Yates, B. T., & Fowles, T. R. (2018). Cost-Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in Clinics versus Homes: Client, Provider, Administrator, and Overall Perspectives. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 27(10), 3329–3344. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-021-01897-4
Abstract: Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is effective in decreasing negative child behaviors when delivered in clinics. Emerging research suggests that delivering PCIT in client homes can produce similar outcomes … but at what cost? Home PCIT still consumes valuable client time, but only for sessions. Home PCIT could reduce barriers to continued parent participation, and costs, by not requiring clients to spend time and money traveling to and from clinics. Home PCIT also does not require that parenting skills learned in clinics be generalized to homes. We assessed and compared costs of clinic and home PCIT at individual client and program levels of specificity from client and provider perspectives for 264 children and parents (clinic = 139, home = 125). We also included an administrator perspective and a client + provider + administrator = overall perspective. Multivariate analyses of covariance applied to imputed datasets found that, because significantly more sessions were held for PCIT delivered in homes than in clinics (a mean 18 versus 11 sessions, respectively), home PCIT cost significantly more from the overall perspective ($3913 versus $1821 per child receiving home versus clinic PCIT) and the provider perspective ($3326 versus $950 per child receiving home versus clinic PCIT), significantly less from the administrator perspective ($125 versus $397 per child receiving home versus clinic PCIT), and about the same from the client perspective ($352 versus $427 per child receiving home versus clinic PCIT). Cost-effectiveness ratios (CERs) calculated for individual clients were significantly better for clinic PCIT from provider and overall perspectives but not from the administrator or client perspectives
Keywords: Cost-effectiveness; Costs Effectiveness; Parent-Child Interaction Therapy; PCIT; Stakeholder perspective.
Home-based preventive parenting intervention for at-risk infants and their families: An open trial
Bagner, D. M., Rodríguez, G. M., Blake, C. A., & Rosa-Olivares, J. (2013). Home-based preventive parenting intervention for at-risk infants and their families: An open trial. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 20, 334-348.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and initial outcome of a home-based adaptation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for at-risk infants with externalizing behavior problems. Seven 12- to 15-month-old infants and their families were recruited at a large pediatric primary care clinic to participate in a home-based parenting intervention to prevent subsequent externalizing behavior problems. Home-based assessments were conducted at baseline, postintervention, and a 4- to 6-month follow-up. Six of the 7 (86%) families completed the intervention, and all completers reported high satisfaction with the intervention. All of the mothers demonstrated significant improvements and statistically reliable changes in their interactions with their infant, and most reported clinically significant and statistically reliable changes in infant behavior problems. The current study provides preliminary support for the use of this brief, home-based parenting intervention in addressing behavior problems as early as possible to improve access to an intervention for at-risk infants and their families. Successes and challenges with the development and implementation of this intervention are discussed along with directions for future research and clinical practice.
Keywords: PCIT; Infant Studies; Infancy; Externalizing Behavior Problems; Prevention; Parenting; Risk.
Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy delivered to at-risk families in the home setting
Galanter, R., Self-Brown, S., Valente, J. R., Dorsey, S., Whitaker, D. J., Bertuglia-Haley, M., & Prieto, M. (2012). Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy delivered to at-risk families in the home setting. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 34, 177-196.
Abstract: An evaluation was conducted for 83 parent-child dyads who participated in parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) delivered in-home by community agency therapists. Data included self-report measures and therapist observations at baseline and post-treatment. Results indicated significant positive changes in child/parent behavior and parent attitudes for dyad completers. Overall, parents who completed in-home PCIT reported significantly more positive child outcomes than noncompleters and had a significantly lower risk of child abuse. Implications for implementing PCIT into community practice are discussed, including reducing barriers, in-home modifications, and model fidelity in practice with high-risk communities.
Keywords: : PCIT; Home Based Interventions; Child Abuse; Efficacy; In-Home; Parenting; Prevention.
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in a community setting: Examining outcomes, attrition, and treatment setting
Lanier, P., Kohl, P. L., Benz, J., Swinger, D., Moussette, P., & Drake, B. (2011). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in a community setting: Examining outcomes, attrition, and treatment setting. Research on Social Work Practice, 1, 689-698.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) deployed in a community setting comparing in-home with the standard office-based intervention. Child behavior, parent stress, parent functioning, and attrition were examined. Using a quasi-experimental design, standardized measures at three time points were collected from parent-child dyads (n=120) with thirty-seven families completing treatment. Growth modeling analyses indicate significant improvements in child and parent outcomes in both treatment settings with more rapid improvements in parent outcomes within office-based treatment. Attrition was predicted by income and parent functioning. PCIT delivered in the community can produce measurable improvements. In-home PCIT is a feasible option but future research should consider benefits and costs. Treatment completion remains a challenge.
Keywords: PCIT; Attrition Studies; Child Welfare; Children; Community Intervention; Evidence-Based Practice; Intervention; Quantitative; Home Based Interventions.
Efficacy of adjunct in-home coaching to improve outcomes in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy
Timmer, S. G., Zebell, N. M., Culver, M. A., & Urquiza, A. J. (2009). Efficacy of adjunct in-home coaching to improve outcomes in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy. Research on Social Work Practice, 20, 36-45.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to test whether increasing the exposure to coaching by adding an in-home component to clinic-delivered Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) will increase the speed of parenting skill acquisition and show greater improvements in children’s behaviors and parental stress. Methods: Seventy-three parent–child dyads participating in clinic-based PCIT are randomly assigned to an adjunct PCIT or Social Support treatment group. The sample of children is 58% male and ranges in age from 1.7 to 8.2 years. Results: Analyses show that participation in adjunct PCIT services is associated with greater use of positive verbalizations and leads to improvement on measures of parent functioning. Conclusions: The meaning of these findings with respect to change and the process of treatment is discussed.
Keywords: PCIT; Home Based Interventions; Treatment Outcomes; Adjunct Services; In-Home Services.
Efficacy of in-home Parent-Child Interaction Therapy
Ware, L. M., McNeil, C. B., Masse, J., & Stevens, S. (2008). Efficacy of in-home Parent-Child Interaction Therapy. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 30, 99-126.
Abstract: In recent years, there has been much discussion of the efficacy of mental health interventions for children as well as the transportation of empirically-supported treatements (ESTs) to field settings. A logical initial step in this line of research is to examine whether the efficacy of ESTs can be demonstrated in community settings such as in the home environment. The purpose of the study was to examine the efficacy of an in-home Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) program using a single-subject. A/B design across five subjects with staggered baselines. Decreases in caregiver use of negative behavior and caregiver-reported child behavior problems were observed for the three families that completed treatment. In addition, completers demonstrated increases in child compliance, caregiver use of positive behavior, and contingent praise. Data regarding caregivers' reported parenting stress and caregiver proportion of direct commands were less convincing. All three dyads completing treatment reported satisfaction with the intervention. Clinical implications regarding the possible benefits of PCIT for improving the effectiveness of home visiting programs are discussed as well as directions for future research.
Keywords: PCIT; Home-Based Interventions; General Outcome Studies.
In-home Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Clinical considerations
Masse, J. J., & McNeil, C. B. (2008). In-home Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Clinical considerations. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 30, 127-135.
Abstract: Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an empirically-supported behavioral parent training program designed to be administered in a clinic or laboratory-based setting. Recently, an empirical investigation revealed that in-home PCIT produced comparable results as the PCIT trials conducted in more controlled environments (this issue). Administering PCIT in a home setting carries both drawbacks and advantages. This article provides an overview of both the positive and negative clinical aspects of conducting in-home PCIT and presents effective solutions to potential treatment barriers.
Keywords: PCIT; Home Based Interventions; Clinical Modifications; In-Home Treatment Model.
Internet‐delivered parent–child interaction therapy: Two clinical case reports
Kohlhoff, J., Wallace, N., Morgan, S., Maiuolo, M., & Turnell, A. (2019). Internet‐delivered parent–child interaction therapy: Two clinical case reports. Clinical Psychologist, 23(3), 271–282. 10.1111/cp.12184
Abstract: Background: Disruptive child behaviours can be the start of a trajectory towards poor psychological outcomes across the lifespan. Parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT) is an evidence‐based intervention designed for treating disruptive behaviours in children aged 2–7 years. The program utilises live coaching during dyadic parent–child play sessions and preliminary evidence suggests that the program can be implemented using a video‐teleconferencing format, thereby improving accessibility to families from rural and remote areas. Method: Two case studies are reported of families living in rural Australia who participated in a pilot I‐PCIT (Internet‐delivered parent–child interaction therapy) program delivered from a community‐based child treatment clinic. Results: The case studies highlight the negative impacts of early childhood behavioural issues and the efficacy of the I‐PCIT program in bringing about positive changes in child behaviour, parental skills and confidence, and the parent–child relationship. Conclusions: Results highlight the potential of I‐PCIT as a treatment option for families struggling with disruptive child behaviours living in rural and remote areas.
Keywords: case report; Disruptive behaviour disorders; Parent‐training program; Parent–child interaction therapy; Rural; Telehealth.
Remotely Delivering Real-Time Parent Training to the Home: An Initial Randomized Trial of Internet-Delivered Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (I-PCIT)
Comer, J. S., Furr, J. M., Miguel, E. M., Carpenter, A. L., Kerns, C. E., DeSerisy, M., Myers, K. M., Cooper-Vince, C. E., Elkins, R. M., Cornacchio, D., Chou, T., Coxe, S., Sanchez, A. L., Golik, A., Martin, J., & Chase, R. (2017). Remotely Delivering Real-Time Parent Training to the Home: An Initial Randomized Trial of Internet-Delivered Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (I-PCIT). Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 85(9), 909–917. 10.1037/ccp0000230
Abstract: Objective: Remote technologies are increasingly being leveraged to expand the reach of supported care, but applications to early child-behavior problems have been limited. This is the first controlled trial examining video-teleconferencing to remotely deliver behavioral parent training to the home setting with a live therapist. Method: Racially/ethnically diverse children ages 3-5 years with disruptive behavior disorders, and their caregiver(s), using webcams and parent-worn Bluetooth earpieces, participated in a randomized trial comparing Internet-delivered parent-child interaction therapy (I-PCIT) versus standard clinic-based PCIT (N = 40). Major assessments were conducted at baseline, midtreatment, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Linear regressions and hierarchical linear modeling using maximum-likelihood estimation were used to analyze treatment satisfaction, diagnoses, symptoms, functioning, and burden to parents across conditions. Results: Intent-to-treat analyses found 70% and 55% of children treated with I-PCIT and clinic-based PCIT, respectively, showed "treatment response" after treatment, and 55% and 40% of children treated with I-PCIT and clinic-based PCIT, respectively, continued to show "treatment response" at 6-month follow-up. Both treatments had significant effects on children's symptoms and burden to parents, and many effects were very large in magnitude. Most outcomes were comparable across conditions, except that the rate of posttreatment "excellent response" was significantly higher in I-PCIT than in clinic-based PCIT, and I-PC1T was associated with significantly fewer parent-perceived barriers to treatment than clinic-based PCIT. Both treatments were associated with positive engagement, treatment retention, and very high treatment satisfaction. Conclusion: Findings build on the small but growing literature supporting the promising role of new technologies for expanding the delivery of behavioral parent training.
Keywords: Telemental Health; Preschool; Conduct Problems; Parent Training; Technology.
Adapting internet-delivered Parent-Child Interaction Therapy to treat co-occurring disruptive behavior and callous-unemotional traits: A case study
Fleming, G. E., Kimonis, E. R., Datyner, A., & Comer, J. S. (2017). Adapting internet-delivered Parent-Child Interaction Therapy to treat co-occurring disruptive behavior and callous-unemotional traits: A case study. Clinical Case Studies, 16, 1-18.
Abstract: Disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are highly prevalent, emerge in early childhood, exhibit considerable stability across time, and are associated with profound disability. When DBD co-occur with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy/guilt), the risk of early-onset, stable, and severe disruptive behavior is even higher, relative to DBD alone. Early intervention is critical, and there is robust empirical support for the efficacy of parent management training (PMT) for reducing disruptive behavior in young children. However, broad access to these interventions is hindered by numerous systemic barriers, including geographic disparities in availability of services. To overcome these barriers and enhance access and quality of care to underserved communities, several PMT programs have been adapted to online delivery formats, including Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). PCIT is an evidence-supported treatment that attempts to reduce disruptive child behavior by improving the parent-child relationship and implementing consistent and effective discipline strategies. Comer and colleagues proposed an online adaptation of PCIT (I-PCIT) that is delivered using video teleconferencing (VTC). I-PCIT was implemented with the family of a 5-year-old Australian boy presenting with clinically significant disruptive behavior and CU traits living in a rural community. Findings from this case report (a) document an improvement in disruptive behavior that was maintained to follow-up and (b) provide preliminary support for adapting PCIT to online delivery formats to enhance accessibility of services and improve child and parent outcomes.
Keywords: PCIT; Internet-Based PCIT (iPCIT); Model Adaptation Studies; International & Cultural Studies; Disruptive Behavior Disorders; Internet-based Treatment; Telemethods; Callous-unemotional Traits.
Rationale and considerations for the internet-based delivery of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy
Comer, J. S., Furr, J. M., Cooper-Vince, C., Madigan, R. J., Chow, C., Chan, P. T., Idrobo, F., Chase, R. M., McNeil, C. B., & Eyberg, S. M. (2015). Rationale and considerations for the internet-based delivery of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 22, 302-316.
Abstract: Given the enormous individual, familial, and societal costs associated with early disruptive behavior disorders, transformative efforts are needed to develop innovative options for overcoming traditional barriers to effective care and for broadening the availability of supported interventions. This paper presents the rationale and key considerations for a promising innovation in the treatment of early-onset disruptive behavior disorders—that is, the development of an Internet-based format for the delivery of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) directly to families in their own homes. Specifically, we consider traditional barriers to effective care, and discuss how technological innovations can overcome problems of treatment availability, accessibility, and acceptability. We then detail our current Internet-delivered PCIT treatment program (I-PCIT), which is currently being evaluated across multiple randomized clinical trials relative to waitlist comparison, and to traditional in-office PCIT. Embedded video clips of children treated with I-PCIT are used to illustrate novel aspects of the treatment.
Keywords: PCIT; Internet-Based; iPCIT; Availability; Home-based; Traditional Barriers; Video; Disruptive Behavior Disorders.
Use and feasibility of telemedicine technology in the dissemination of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy
Funderburk, B. W., Ware, L. M., Altshuler, E., & Chaffin, M. (2008). Use and feasibility of telemedicine technology in the dissemination of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy. Child Maltreatment, 13, 377-82.
Abstract: This brief report discusses the use and feasibility of telemedicine technology in the dissemination of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). PCIT is an empirically supported behavioral parent training program for reducing disruptive behavior in young children and for reducing future rates of child physical abuse. The positive impact PCIT has demonstrated in reducing child maltreatment has galvanized interest in widespread dissemination of the PCIT model into child service systems. PCIT has traditionally been taught in university-based training programs in a mentored cotherapy model. By contrast, in field settings, PCIT training typically consists of workshop training supplemented by a period of telephone consultation (PC). Given concerns with the level of practitioner competency and fidelity yielded by the PC model, PCIT training programs have begun to examine Internet-based telemedicine technology to deliver live, mentored PCIT training to trainees at remote locations (Remote Real-Time or RRT) to better approximate the university-based training model. Challenges of disseminating evidence-based practices are discussed, using PCIT as a model of how these challenges are being addressed by telemedicine technology.
Keywords: PCIT; Model Adaptation Studies; Dissemination; Telemedicine; Training.
Brief, group-based parent-child interaction therapy: Examination of treatment attrition, non-adherence, and non-response
Blair, K., Topitzes, J., & Mersky, J. P. (2019). Brief, group-based parent-child interaction therapy: Examination of treatment attrition, non-adherence, and non-response. Children & Youth Services Review, 106, N.PAG. 10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.104463
Abstract: : Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) has been shown to reduce challenging child behavior and improve parenting skills, yet treatment attrition, non-adherence and non-response remain matters of concern. This study analyzes rates and factors associated with attrition, non-adherence, and non-response using data from a randomized controlled trial of foster parent-child dyads who received brief, group-based PCIT. Multivariate logistic regressions demonstrated that, as compared to prior estimates of conventional outpatient PCIT, rates of treatment attrition, non-adherence and non-response from the group-based PCIT intervention were low. Compared to other racial/ethnic groups, rates of attrition were significantly higher among African American foster parents. No study variables were linked to treatment non-adherence. Foster parent ratings of child externalizing symptoms were positively associated with non-response. Implications for promoting retention and treatment effectiveness, successfully integrating PCIT into child welfare services and advancing future research are discussed.
Keywords: Attrition; Child welfare; Non-adherence; Parent-child interaction therapy; Project connect; Treatment non-response.
Effectiveness of group format Parent-Child Interaction Therapy compared to treatment as usual in a community outreach organization
Foley, K., McNeil, C. B., Norman, M., & Wallace, N. M. (2016). Effectiveness of group format Parent-Child Interaction Therapy compared to treatment as usual in a community outreach organization. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 38, 279-298.
Abstract: : Forty-four participants recruited from a community outreach organization were assigned to receive either group format Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) or group format treatment as usual (TAU). The expected interaction between time and condition was such that participants in the PCIT group experienced a significantly greater decrease in internalizing and externalizing behavior problems compared to participants in the TAU group. This interaction was not significant regarding parenting stress or child abuse potential between the PCIT and TAU conditions. There was a significant increase in positive caregiver skills from pretreatment to posttreatment for the PCIT group; however, there was not a significant decrease in caregiver negative talk.
Keywords: PCIT; General Outcome Studies; Child Behavior Problems; Effectiveness Research; Evidence-based Treatment; Parent Training.
Group Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A randomized control trial for the treatment of conduct problems in young children
Niec, L. N., Barnett, M. L., Prewett, M. S., & Shanley Chatham, J.R. (2016). Group Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A randomized control trial for the treatment of conduct problems in young children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84, 682-98.
Abstract: Although efficacious interventions exist for childhood conduct problems, a majority of families in need of services do not receive them. To address problems of treatment access and adherence, innovative adaptations of current interventions are needed. This randomized control trial investigated the relative efficacy of a novel format of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), a treatment for young children with conduct problems.|Eighty-one families with 3- to 6-year-old children (71.6% boys, 85.2% White) with diagnoses of oppositional defiant or conduct disorder were randomized to individual PCIT (n = 42) or the novel format, Group PCIT. Parents completed standardized measures of children's conduct problems, parenting stress, and social support at intake, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Therapist ratings, parent attendance, and homework completion provided measures of treatment adherence. Throughout treatment, parenting skills were assessed using the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System.|Parents in both group and individual PCIT reported significant improvements from intake to posttreatment and follow-up in their children's conduct problems and adaptive functioning, as well as significant decreases in parenting stress. Parents in both treatment conditions also showed significant improvements in their parenting skills. There were no interactions between time and treatment format. Contrary to expectation, parents in Group PCIT did not experience greater social support or treatment adherence.|Group PCIT was not inferior to individual PCIT and may be a valuable format to reach more families in need of services. Future work should explore the efficiency and sustainability of Group PCIT in community settings.
Keywords: PCIT; Clinical Disorders; Oppositional Defiant Disorder; Conduct Disorder; Childhood Conduct Problems; Group Treatment; Parent Management Training.
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: The rewards and challenges of a group format
Niec, L.N., Hemme, J.M., Yopp, J.M., & Brestan, E.V. (2005). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: The rewards and challenges of a group format. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 12, 113-125.
Abstract: Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an evidence-based treatment for young children with severe behavior problems. Typically, it is individually administered to families by a therapist and a cotherapist. However, converting PCIT to a group format can be a cost-effective way to reach a larger number of families in need of treatment. In addition, PCIT offers techniques to facilitate parents' skill development and generalization of skills that are not commonly used in group parent training programs. This article has multiple goals: (a) to review the structure of a group PCIT program, (b) to discuss the empirical rationale for use of the program, and (c) to provide a case example that illustrates the rewards and challenges of group PCIT.
Keywords: PCIT; General Outcome Studies; Group; Family; Parents; Training; Case Study.
Training parents as therapists: A comparison between individual parent-child interaction training and parent group didactic training
Eyberg, S. M., & Matarazzo, R. G. (1980). Training parents as therapists: A comparison between individual parent-child interaction training and parent group didactic training. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 492-499.
Abstract: Children with home behavior problems frequently are treated via training their parents to become behavior therapists for their own children. One well-established approach has been to use didactic group training. Another approach involves parent training in specific parent-child interaction patterns through the use of modeling, in vivo practice, and immediate feedback. In this study, the effectiveness of these two methods was compared via multiple outcome measures, which included both direct therapist observation and parent report. Twenty-nine children between the ages of 4 and 9 were divided into didactic group-treatment, individual mother-child interaction training, and controls. After five training sessions, therapist observation revealed improvement in the facilitative behavior of the mothers who received individual, in-vivo instruction, as well as improvement in the children's behavior. No significant changes were observed in the group treatment or control conditions. Specific home management behaviors were improved in all three groups according to mothers' reports. The individually trained mothers expressed significantly more satisfaction with the program. It is suggested that direct observation of mother-child behavior, with immediate feedback, reinforcement, and further practice, may be related to the superiority of the individual training method.
Keywords: PCIT; Behavior Therapy; Child; Child Behavior Disorders; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Language Disorders; Male; Parent-Child Relations; Parents; Speech Disorders.
Condensing Parent Training: A Randomized Trial Comparing the Efficacy of a Briefer, More Intensive Version of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (I-PCIT).
Graziano, P. A., Ros-Demarize, R., & Hare, M. M. (2020). Condensing Parent Training: A Randomized Trial Comparing the Efficacy of a Briefer, More Intensive Version of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (I-PCIT). Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 88(7), 669–679. 10.1037/ccp0000504
Abstract: Objective: The current study examined the comparative efficacy of a more intensive version of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (I-PCIT; 5 days/week over 2 weeks) versus a time-limited weekly PCIT format (1 day/week over 10 weeks) in treating early childhood externalizing behavior problems. Method: Using a randomized trial design, 60 young children (mean age [Mage] = 4.33 years; 65% male; 85% Latinx) with clinically elevated levels of externalizing behavior problems and their parents were assigned to either I-PCIT (n = 30) or time-limited PCIT (n = 30). Families completed pre-, post-, and follow-up assessments 6–9 months following treatment completion. Parents completed measures of child behavior, discipline practices, and parenting stress. Observational data on child behavior and parenting were also collected. Results: Noninferiority and multivariate repeated-measures analyses indicated comparable improvements across 6 out of 7 observed and parent-reported outcomes, including parenting skills, discipline practices, and child externalizing behavior problems at posttreatment. Comparable treatment gains remained at follow-up, with the caveat that parents in time-limited PCIT reported lower externalizing behavior problems compared with I-PCIT, although both groups were still significantly better compared with pretreatment. Lastly, moderation analyses indicated that parents experiencing high levels of stress benefited more from I-PCIT in terms of decreasing child externalizing behavior compared with time-limited PCIT. Conclusions: I-PCIT appears to be a viable treatment option for families, especially those experiencing high levels of stress, in terms of targeting early externalizing behavior problems within a short period of time. What is the public health significance of this article?: This study provides evidence that a well-established early intervention program like Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) can be delivered in a briefer, more intensive package (I-PCIT) with comparable benefits to time-limited PCIT. Parents with high levels of stress may particularly benefit from I-PCIT.
Keywords: Brief treatment; Child; Externalizing behavior problems; Parent training; Parent-Child Interaction Therapy; PCIT.
Feasibility of Intensive Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (I-PCIT): Results from an open trial
Graziano, P. A., Bagner, D. M., Slavec, J., Hungerford, G., Kent, K., Babinski, D., & Pasalich, D. (2014). Feasibility of Intensive Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (I-PCIT): Results from an open trial. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 37, 38-49.
Abstract: The current pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and initial outcome of an intensive and more condensed version of Parent–child Interaction Therapy (90 min sessions for 5 days/week over the course of 2 weeks). Using an open trial design, 11 children (M child age=5.01 years) and their mothers completed a baseline period of 2 weeks, a treatment period of 2 weeks, and a post-treatment evaluation. A follow-up evaluation was also conducted 4 months following treatment completion. Across all assessments, mothers completed measures of child behavior and parenting stress, and observational data was collected during three 5-min standard situations that vary in the degree of parental control (child-led play, parent-led play, & clean-up). All 11 families completed the intervention with extremely high attendance and reported high satisfaction. Results across both mother report and observations showed that: a) externalizing behavior problems were stable during the baseline period; b) treatment was effective in reducing externalizing behavior problems (ds=1.67–2.50), improving parenting skills (ds=1.93–6.04), and decreasing parenting stress (d=0.91); and c) treatment gains were maintained at follow-up (ds=0.53– 3.50). Overall, preliminary data suggest that a brief and intensive format of a parent-training intervention is a feasible and effective treatment for young children with externalizing behavior problems with clinical implications for improving children’s behavioral impairment in a very brief period of time.
Keywords: PCIT; Model Adaptation Studies; Parenting Training; Externalizing behavior; Problems; Child; Brief Treatment.
Early identification and intervention for behavior problems in primary care: A comparison of two abbreviated versions of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy
Berkovits, M. D., O'Brien, K. A., Carter, C. G., & Eyberg, S. M. (2010). Early identification and intervention for behavior problems in primary care: A comparison of two abbreviated versions of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy. Behavior Therapy, 41, 375-287.
Abstract: Behavioral screening and preventive intervention were implemented for 3- to 6-year-olds in pediatric primary care with subclinical behavior problems. One hundred eleven children were screened with the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory. Thirty children who scored within one standard deviation of the normative mean whose mothers indicated wanting help for their child's behavior were randomized to one of two abbreviated versions of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) for use in pediatric primary care: (a) a 4-session group preventive intervention called Primary Care PCIT (PC-PCIT); or (b) written materials describing basic steps of PCIT and guidelines for practice, called PCIT Anticipatory Guidance (PCIT-AG). Decreases in child problem behaviors and ineffective parenting strategies, and increases in parental feelings of control were not significantly different between versions at post-intervention or 6-month follow-up. Changes during intervention were significantly larger for both groups than changes during pretreatment baseline, with moderate to large effect sizes. These brief versions of PCIT are both promising primary care preventive interventions that deserve further study.
Keywords: PCIT; Model Adaptation Studies.
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: One- and two-year follow-up of standard and abbreviated treatments for oppositional preschoolers
Nixon, R. D., Sweeney, L., Erickson, D. B., & Touyz, S. W. (2004). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: One- and two-year follow-up of standard and abbreviated treatments for oppositional preschoolers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 263-271.
Abstract: The long-term effect of two parent training programs for conduct problem preschoolers is reported. Families of 54 behaviorally disturbed preschool-aged children were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions: standard Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (STD), an abbreviated form of PCIT (ABB), and a no-treatment waitlist control group (WL). Of the families who completed treatment (STD and ABB), data were collected on 97% and 94% of families at 1- and 2-year follow-up, respectively. Follow-up assessment of parent report and independent observations indicated that treatment gains were largely maintained for both treatment conditions with little difference between the two treatments. The findings suggest that an abbreviated form of PCIT has long-term benefits for families with young children displaying early conduct problems.
Keywords: PCIT; Follow-up Studies - Longitudinal Research; Clinical Disorders; Oppositional Defiant Disorder; Preschoolers; ODD; Externalizing Behavior Problems; Treatment.
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A comparison of standard and abbreviated treatments for oppositional defiant preschoolers
Nixon, R. D., Sweeney, L., Erickson, D. B., & Touyz, S. W. (2003). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A comparison of standard and abbreviated treatments for oppositional defiant preschoolers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 251-260.
Abstract: Families of 54 behaviorally disturbed preschool-aged children (3 to 5 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions: standard parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT; STD); modified PCIT that used didactic videotapes, telephone consultations, and face-to-face sessions to abbreviate treatment; and a no-treatment waitlist control group (WL). Twenty-one nondisturbed preschoolers were recruited as a social validation comparison condition. Posttreatment assessment indicated significant differences in parent-reported externalizing behavior in children, and parental stress and discipline practices from both treatment groups on most measures compared with the WL group. Clinical significance testing suggested a superior effect for the STD immediately after intervention, but by 6-month follow-up, the two groups were comparable. The findings indicate that abbreviated PCIT may be of benefit for families with young conduct problem children.
Keywords: PCIT; Clinical Disorders; Oppositional Defiant Disorder; Modified PCIT.
Summer Treatment Program for Preschoolers with Externalizing Behavior Problems: a Preliminary Examination of Parenting Outcomes
Graziano, P. A., Ros, R., Hart, K. C., & Slavec, J. (2018). Summer Treatment Program for Preschoolers with Externalizing Behavior Problems: a Preliminary Examination of Parenting Outcomes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46(6), 1253–1265. 10.1007/s10802-017-0358-6
Abstract: Within an at-risk sample of preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP), the current study examined the initial promise of a multimodal intervention, the Summer Treatment Program for Pre-Kindergarteners (STP-PreK), in improving parenting outcomes. Using an open trial design, 154 parents and their preschool children (73% male; M age = 5.06 years; 82% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP (57% of which were referred by schools or mental health/medical professionals) completed a baseline and post-treatment assessment. A subsample of 90 families completed a follow-up assessment approximately 6 to 9 months after treatment completion. Parental measures of parenting stress and discipline strategies were collected across all three assessments. Observational data were also collected across all assessments during a 5-min standardized child-led play situation and a 5-min parent-led clean up task. The parenting component of the STP-PreK included a School Readiness Parenting Program (SRPP) of which the behavioral management component was implemented via a Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) adaptation (8 weekly group sessions with 15-20 parents in each group, lack of requirement of "mastery" criteria). All parenting outcomes (both ratings and observed) significantly improved after the intervention (Cohen's d mean effect size across measures 0.89) with all effects being maintained at the 6-9 month follow-up. These findings highlight the initial promise of our SRPP's PCIT adaptation in targeting multiple aspects of parenting while yielding comparable parenting skills acquisition compared to traditional individual PCIT.
Keywords: Externalizing behavior problems; Intervention; Parent training; PCIT; Preschool; School readiness
Parent-child interaction therapy as a prevention model for childhood obesity: A novel application for high-risk families
Domoff, S. E., & Niec, L. N. (2018). Parent-child interaction therapy as a prevention model for childhood obesity: A novel application for high-risk families. Children & Youth Services Review, 91, 77–84.
Abstract: Childhood obesity is a formidable public health issue in the United States. Although childhood obesity risk is complex and influenced by multiple systems and individual domains, there is increasing appreciation for the impact of the family environment generally, and parent-child interactions specifically, on children's levels of risk. Longitudinal research has identified parenting style and quality of parent-child interactions as important targets for reducing child obesity risk. Although, obesity prevention programs have attempted to change general parenting practices to prevent obesity (Haines et al., 2016; Harvey-Berino & Rourke, 2003; Østbye et al., 2012), no prevention efforts, to date, have attempted to change the parent-child relationship to reduce young children's obesity risk. In this paper, we describe the rationale for and development of an innovative prevention program: Parent-Child Interaction Therapy-Health (PCIT-Health). First, we review the risk factors for the onset of obesity during childhood and assess current approaches to preventing child obesity, including limitations. Next, we articulate the theoretical links and empirical evidence that make PCIT a logical model to reduce the risk for childhood obesity. Finally, we describe the adaptation of the standard PCIT model into the PCIT-Health model and conclude with next steps for evaluating the adaptation
Keywords: Childhood obesity; Low-income; Parent-child interaction therapy; Parent-child relationship; Parenting;
Child-Adult Relationship Enhancement in Primary Care (PriCare): A randomized trial of parent training for child behavior problems
Schilling, S., French, B., Berkowitz, S. J. Dougherty, S. L., Scribano, P. V., & Wood, J. N. (2017). Child-Adult Relationship Enhancement in Primary Care (PriCare): A randomized trial of parent training for child behavior problems. Academic Pediatrics, 17, 53-60.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : Child–Adult Relationship Enhancement in Primary Care (PriCARE) is a 6-session group parent training designed to teach positive parenting skills. Our objective was to measure PriCARE’s impact on child behavior and parenting attitudes.
METHODS : Parents of children 2 to 6 years old with behavior concerns were randomized to PriCARE (n = 80) or control (n= 4 0). Child behavior and parenting attitudes were measured at baseline (0 weeks), program completion (9 weeks), and 7 weeks after program completion (16 weeks) using the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) and the Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory 2 (AAPI2). Linear regression models compared mean ECBI and AAPI2 change scores from 0 to 16 weeks in the PriCARE and control groups, adjusted for baseline scores.
RESULTS : Of those randomized to PriCARE, 43% attended 3 or more sessions. Decreases in mean ECBI intensity and problem scores between 0 and 16 weeks were greater in the PriCARE group, reflecting a larger improvement in behavior problems [intensity: - 22 ( - 29, - 16) vs - 7 ( - 17, 2), P = .012; problem: - 5 ( - 7, - 4) vs - 2 ( - 4, 0), P = .014]. Scores on 3 of the 5 AAPI2 subscales reflected greater improvements in parenting attitudes in the PriCARE group compared to control in the following areas: empathy toward children’s needs [0.82 (0.51, 1.14) vs 0.25 ( - 0.19, 0.70), P = .04], corporal punishment [0.22 (0.00, 0.45) vs - 0.30 ( - 0.61, 0.02), P = .009], and power and independence [0.37 ( - 0.02, 0.76) vs - 0.64( - 1.19, - 0.09), P = .003].
CONCLUSIONS: PriCARE shows promise in improving parent reported child-behavior problems in preschool-aged children and increasing positive parenting attitudes.
Keywords: PCIT; Child-Adult Relationship Enhancement – CARE; Behavioral Problems; Corporal Punishment; Parent Training; Primary Care.
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with an eight-year-old child: A case study
Stokes, J. O., Scudder, A., Costello, A. H., & McNeil, C. B. (2017). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with an eight-year-old child: A case study. Evidence-Based Practice in Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 2, 1-11.
Abstract: We examined the outcome of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) with an 8-year-old child diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder. We presented a theoretical basis for the use of PCIT with some children older than 6 and suggested clinical considerations as well as adaptations and modifications that may make PCIT applicable with this population. “Curtis,” a Caucasian male, made clinically significant improvements and no longer met diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder at posttreatment. His scores on the Child Behavior Checklist and Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory improved from the clinical range at pretreatment to within the normative range at posttreatment. Further research should examine the efficacy of PCIT with children older than 6 and the feasibility of the suggested adaptations and modifications for this population.
Keywords: PCIT; Clinical Disorders; Oppositional Defiant Disorder; Model Adaptation Studies.
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and its adaptations
Elkins, R. M., Mian, N. D., Comer, J. S., & Pincus, D. B. (2017). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and its adaptations. In J.L. Luby (Ed.). Handbook of preschool mental health: Development, disorders, and treatment (pp. 271-291).New York: Guilford Publications, Inc.
Keywords: Keywords: PCIT; Book Chapters; Model Adaptation Studies.
A case study of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Flexible client-centered adaptation of an EST
Gordon, H. M., & Cooper, L. D. (2016). A case study of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Flexible client-centered adaptation of an EST. Clinical Case Studies, 15, 126-142.
Abstract: The authors present a case study of “Katie,” a 4-year-old girl diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Treatment was conducted with Katie and her family using Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). However, client-centered adaptations were made to improve the feasibility of the treatment and its ecological validity in a community setting. Katie demonstrated marked reduction in ODD symptoms during treatment and no longer met criteria for ODD at discharge and throughout follow-up periods. A hybrid model was utilized whereby PCIT components were delivered in both clinic and in-home settings. Client-centered adaptations and the benefits of treatment in the in-home setting are discussed. The authors contend that use of appropriate client-centered clinical flexibility, when implementing a manualized, empirically supported, and evidence-based treatment, can assist in bridging the “science–practice gap” allowing for appropriate flexibility and individualization, while also promoting the use of empirically supported and validated treatment approaches.
Keywords: PCIT; Home Based Interventions; Clinical Disorders; Oppositional Defiant Disorder; Model Adaptation Studies; Adaptations; Clinical Flexibility; In-Home Therapy.
Enhancing Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with motivational interviewing techniques
N'zi, A. M., Lucash, R. E., Clionsky, L. N., & Eyberg, S. H. (2016). Enhancing Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with motivational interviewing techniques. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 24, 131-141.
Abstract: Parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT) is an evidence-based family intervention for young children with disruptive behavior. Parents and children who complete PCIT show greater immediate and long-term treatment gains than those who discontinue treatment prematurely. PCIT is a time- and effort-intensive treatment, and parents ambivalent about its value for their child or their ability to master the treatment skills may discontinue treatment before engaging sufficiently to experience change. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centered therapeutic method of increasing motivation for change through the resolution of ambivalence. This paper describes how clinicians may incorporate MI strategies into PCIT to enhance parental motivation when signs of ambivalence arise. Vignettes and scripted therapy exchanges illustrate use of the strategies to decrease ambivalence in PCIT, improve homework adherence, increase parenting self-efficacy, and reduce attrition, thereby improving outcomes for young children with disruptive behaviors and their families.
Keywords: PCIT; Enhancement Studies; Motivational Interviewing; Motivation; Parent Training.
An evaluation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with and without motivational enhancement to reduce attrition
Webb, H. J., Thomas, R., McGregor, L., Avdagic, E., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2016). An evaluation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with and without motivational enhancement to reduce attrition. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 1-14.
Abstract: Although many interventions for child externalizing behavior report promising outcomes for families, high attrition prior to program completion remains a problem. Many programs report dropout rates of 50% or higher. In this trial we sought to reduce attrition and improve outcomes by augmenting a well-known evidence-based intervention, Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), with a 3-session individual motivational enhancement component. Participants were 192 Australian caregivers (91.7% female; Mage = 34.4 years) and their children (33.3% female; Mage = 4.4 years). Families (51% referred from child welfare or health services for risk of maltreatment) were assigned to PCIT or a supported waitlist, with families assigned to PCIT receiving either standard PCIT (S/PCIT) or motivation-enhanced PCIT (M/PCIT), depending on their time of entry to the study. Waitlist families received phone calls every week for 12 weeks. Parents in M/PCIT reported more readiness to change their behavior from preassessment to after the motivation sessions. Also, parents who reported high, rather than low, motivation at preassessment did have a lower attrition rate, and there was some evidence that enhancing motivation was protective of premature attrition to the extent that caregivers achieved a high degree of change in motivation. Yet comparison of attrition rates and survival analyses revealed no difference between M/PCIT and S/PCIT in retention rate. Finally, there were greater reductions in externalizing and internalizing child behavior problems and parental stress among families in S/PCIT and M/PCIT compared with waitlist, and there was generally no significant difference between the two treatment conditions.
Keywords: PCIT; Attrition Studies; International & Cultural Research; Motivational Enhancement; Externalizing Behaviors; Internalizing Behaviors; MPCIT.
The Holding Hands Project: Effectiveness in promoting positive parent-child interactions
Rait, S. (2012). The Holding Hands Project: Effectiveness in promoting positive parent-child interactions. Educational Psychology in Practice, 28, 353-371.
Abstract: It is now generally accepted that training parents can be effective in supporting children with behaviour difficulties and given the current climate of decreasing resources there is a strong case for evaluating effectiveness. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a significantly modified version of the standard clinic-based; Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (S-PCIT) programme, referred to as the Holding Hands Project. Thirty parents and their children were assessed at pre- and post-intervention, and of these a total of 25 parents were also assessed at two month follow-up. A significant trend towards a positive development in all of the areas explored was found. Furthermore, an overall significant change in observed children’s behavior was found between pre-intervention to follow-up. This study adds to the growing evidence that a well-established clinical programme such as S-PCIT can produce positive outcomes even when it has been significantly modified and “transported” to a UK community setting.
Keywords: PCIT; Model Adaptation Studies; Behavior Difficulties; Parenting Programmes; Pre-school; Community Programme.
Using Parent–Child Interaction Therapy to develop a pre-parent education module
Lee, E. L., Wilsie, C. C., & Brestan-Knight, E. (2011). Using Parent–Child Interaction Therapy to develop a pre-parent education module. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 1254-1261.
Abstract: Ineffective parenting skills, poor knowledge of child development, rigidity, and harsh physical punishment have been identified as risk factors for abuse and child disruptive behavior. Due to the long-term negative consequences of child maltreatment and behavior disorders on child functioning prevention is needed. Primary prevention program developers posit that pre-parenthood is an ideal time for training to prevent child maltreatment. Child and family-focused researchers suggest that by increasing effective parenting the likelihood of childhood disruptive behavior disorders and child maltreatment can be reduced; however no published studies have investigated the use of a pre-parent training intervention to increase parenting knowledge and use of effective parenting behaviors in undergraduate non-parents. The current study examined the vi influence that exposure to a pre-parent education module based on PCIT principles has on students’ knowledge and use of effective behavioral parenting skills as measured by scores on a PCIT content quiz developed by the researcher and the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System – 3rd edition with a sample of 300 undergraduate non-parents aged 19 to 25. A subsample of students participated in an analog DPICS CDI observation that required them to play with an undergraduate research assistant role-playing a three-year-old child. Participants were instructed to follow the “child’s” lead and play the role of parent during the observation. The hypothesis that exposure to the pre-parent education module would result in significant increase in scores on PCIT content quiz was supported. The hypothesis that exposure to the pre-parent education module would result in significant increase in the frequency of praise, reflection and behavior description during the role play observation was partially supported. The hypothesis that exposure to developmental psychology course material would result in significant increase in knowledge of child development was partially supported. Implications of the current study and future directions are discussed.
Keywords: PCIT; Dissertations; Child Maltreatment; Clinical Disorders.