Father-Child Relationship Articles
Foster Care / Adoption Articles
Community Mental Health Articles
Parental & Sibling Articles
Father's role in parent training for children with developmental delay
Bagner, D.M. (2013). Father's role in parent training for children with developmental delay. Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 650-657.
Abstract: The current pilot study was a quasi-experimental examination of the impact of father involvement in parent training among 44 families with a young child who presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems and developmental delay. All families were offered to receive Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), an evidence-based parent-training intervention, at a hospital-based outpatient clinic. Single-mother families were significantly more likely to drop out of treatment than two-parent families. Of the families that completed treatment, children from families in which a father participated in treatment had lower levels of parent-reported externalizing behavior problems than children from single-mother families and children from two-parent families in which the father did not participate in treatment. Additionally, children from father-involved families were significantly more compliant during a cleanup task than children from single-mother families following treatment. The current study is consistent with the limited research examining father involvement in parent training and extends the findings to children with developmental delay. These findings highlight the importance of involving fathers in parent training, particularly when working with children with developmental delay.
Keywords: PCIT; Father-Child Research; Father Involvement; Parent Training; Developmental Delay; Behavior Problems; Intervention Research.
Father involvement in parent training: When does it matter?
Bagner, D. M., & Eyberg, S. M. (2003). Father involvement in parent training: When does it matter? Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 32, 599-605.
Abstract: We examined the effects of father involvement in treatment. Participants were 107 families enrolled in parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), including 56 involved-father families, and 35 absent-father families. All groups showed improvements during treatments to within the average range on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), although mother from absent-fathers families reported better treatment outcome than mothers from involved-father families. Improvements occurred on the Beck Depression Inventory and the Parenting Stress Index as well, but there were no group differences. At 16-week follow-up. Results suggest that although father participation in treatment may not improve immediate treatment outcome, father involvement may help to maintain the beneficial effects of PCIT once treatment has ended.
Keywords: PCIT; Father-Child Research.
Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy to foster care: Outcomes from a randomized trial
Mersky, J. P., Topitzes, J., Grant-Savela, S., Brondino, M. J., & McNeil, C. B. (2016). Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy to foster care: Outcomes from a randomized trial. Research on Social Work Practice, 26, 157-167.
Abstract: This study presents outcomes from a randomized trial of a novel Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) model for foster families. Differential effects of two intervention doses on child externalizing and internalizing symptoms are examined. Method: A sample of 102 foster children was assigned to one of three conditions—brief PCIT, extended PCIT, or wait-list control. The brief and extended groups received 2 days of PCIT training and 8 weeks of telephone consultation. The extended PCIT group received an additional booster training plus 6 more weeks of consultation. Wait-list controls received services as usual. Tests of change over time were estimated using mixed-model repeated measures analysis of covariance. Results: Compared to controls, children in both PCIT groups exhibited a greater reduction in externalizing and internalizing scores over time. Pairwise contrasts of the two PCIT conditions yielded mixed results. Conclusion: Results indicate that PCIT can be tailored efficaciously for foster families using alternative treatment modalities.
Keywords: PCIT; Foster Care; Mental Health; Intervention; Translational Research.
Enhancing foster parent training with Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Evidence from a randomized field experiment
Mersky, J. P., Topitzes, J., Janczewski, C. E., & McNeil, C. B. (2015). Enhancing foster parent training with Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Evidence from a randomized field experiment. Journal of the Society for Social Work & Research, 6, 591-616.
Abstract: : Research indicates that foster parents often do not receive sufficient training and support to help them meet the demands of caring for foster children with emotional and behavioral disturbances. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a clinically efficacious intervention for child externalizing problems, and it also has been shown to mitigate parenting stress and enhance parenting attitudes and behaviors. However, PCIT is seldom available to foster families, and it rarely has been tested under intervention conditions that are generalizable to community-based child welfare service contexts. To address this gap, PCIT was adapted and implemented in a field experiment using 2 novel approaches-group-based training and telephone consultation-both of which have the potential to be integrated into usual care. This study analyzes 129 foster-parent-child dyads who were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: (a) waitlist control, (b) brief PCIT, and (c) extended PCIT. Self-report and observational data were gathered at multiple time points up to 14 weeks post baseline. Findings from mixed-model, repeated measures analyses indicated that the brief and extended PCIT interventions were associated with a significant decrease in self-reported parenting stress. Results from mixed-effects generalized linear models showed that the interventions also led to significant improvements in observed indicators of positive and negative parenting. The brief course of PCIT was as efficacious as the extended PCIT intervention. The findings suggest that usual training and support services can be improved upon by introducing foster parents to experiential, interactive PCIT training.
Keywords: PCIT; Foster Care; Model Adaptation Studies; Parent Training; Intervention; Stress; Parenting.
Implementation of Parent Child Interaction Therapy within foster care: An attempt to translate an evidence-based program within a local child welfare agency
Topitzes, J., Mersky, J. P., & McNeil, C. B. (2015). Implementation of Parent Child Interaction Therapy within foster care: An attempt to translate an evidence-based program within a local child welfare agency. Journal of Public Child Welfare, 9, 22-41.
Abstract: This paper describes an innovative adaptation of an evidence-based intervention - Parent Child Interaction Therapy or PCIT - to foster parent training services. The authors faced multiple problems that commonly plague translational child welfare research as they developed, implemented and tested their model. The paper discusses how the authors addressed these problems when: 1) specifying the child welfare context in which the intervention model was implemented and tested, choosing an intervention model that responded to child welfare service needs, and tailoring the model for a child welfare context; 2) securing external funding and initiating sustainability plans for model uptake; and 3) forging a university-community partnership to overcome logistical and ethical obstacles. Concluding with a summary of promising preliminary study results, a description of future plans to replicate and spread the model, and a distillation of project lessons, the paper suggests that child welfare translational research with PCIT is very promising.
Keywords: : PCIT; Foster Care; Model Adaptation Studies; Child Maltreatment; Evidence-Based Practices
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy as an attachment-based intervention: Theoretical rationale and pilot data with adopted children
Allen, B., Timmer, S. G., & Urquiza, A. J. (2014). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy as an attachment-based intervention: Theoretical rationale and pilot data with adopted children. Children and Youth Services Review, 47, 334-341.
Abstract: Children with histories of child abuse and neglect, particularly children residing in foster or adoptive homes, are commonly considered by many professionals to need “attachment therapy” in order to address emotional and behavioral needs. However, evidence-based treatments rarely utilize an attachment-based justification outside of the infancy through preschooler age range. In actuality, many evidence-based treatments can be understood through the lens of attachment theory. This paper reviews the tenets of an attachment-based approach to treatment and describes how one evidence-based treatment, Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), conforms to all expectations and requirements prescribed by attachment theory and research. Next, pilot data from an open trial of PCIT with a sample of adopted children and their adoptive caregivers (n = 85) are provided. Results demonstrate significant improvements in positive parenting techniques, reductions in parenting stress, and reductions in externalizing and internalizing concerns among the children. These results are discussed in the context of improving the quality of care for children often described as in need of “attachment therapy.”
Keywords: PCIT; Child Maltreatment; Attachment; Evidence-Based Treatment; Adoption.
Keywords: PCIT; Child Maltreatment; Attachment; Evidence-Based Treatment; Adoption.
Challenging foster caregiver-maltreated child relationships: The effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy
Timmer, S. G., Urquiza, A. J., & Zebell, N. (2006). Challenging foster caregiver-maltreated child relationships: The effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy. Children and Youth Services, 28, 1-19.
Abstract: This study describes the effectiveness of parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT), an evidence- based treatment for abused children, for 75 non-relative foster parents and their foster children compared with 98 non-abusive biological parent–child dyads referred for treatment because of the children’s behavior problems. Results showed decreases in child behavior problems and caregiver distress from pre- to post-treatment for both foster and biological parent–child dyads, revealing no differences in the effectiveness of this treatment for foster parents compared with non-abusive biological parents.
Keywords: PCIT; Foster Care; Child Maltreatment; Foster Caregiver; Maltreated Child.
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Application of an empirically supported treatment to maltreated children in foster care
Timmer, S. G., Urquiza, A. J., Herschell, A. D., McGrath, J. M., Zebell, N. M., Porter, A. L., & Vargas, E. C. (2006). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Application of an empirically supported treatment to maltreated children in foster care. Child Welfare, 85, 919-39.
Abstract: : One of the more serious problems faced by child welfare services involves the management of children with serious behavioral and mental health problems. Aggressive and defiant foster children are more likely to have multiple foster care placements, require extraordinary social services resources, and have poor short- and long-term mental health outcomes. Interventions that work with challenging foster children and enhance foster parents' skills in managing problem behaviors are necessary. This article presents the successful results of a single case study examining the application of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) with an aggressive young boy and his foster-adoptive parent. PCIT is a dyadic intervention that has been identified as an empirically supported treatment for abused children and for children with different types of behavioral disruption. The application of PCIT to assist foster parents is a promising direction for child welfare services.
Keywords: PCIT; Foster Care; Adult; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity; Child Behavior Disorders; Child; Preschool; Family Therapy; Female; Foster Home Care; Humans; Male; Parent-Child Relations; Parenting; Play Therapy.
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with two maltreated siblings in foster care
Fricker-Elhai, A. E., Ruggiero, K. J., & Smith, D. W. (2005). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with two maltreated siblings in foster care. Clinical Case Studies, 4, 13-39.
Abstract: : Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an empirically supported treatment for young children with disruptive behavior that emphasizes parent training in behavior management. Although researchers have demonstrated the usefulness of PCIT in multiple settings and with various subgroups of children, few have documented the application of this intervention with maltreated children or with children who live in foster care environments. Two foster children with severe maltreatment histories were identified as appropriate candidates for PCIT. Both children presented with various forms of problem behavior, including tantrumming, noncompliance with parental commands, aggressive behavior toward peers, and sexualized behavior. Also, prior to initiating PCIT, both foster parents adhered to several inappropriate and ineffective parenting methods. We highlight several barriers to successful treatment that are not uncommon with maltreated children and foster families; several such barriers surfaced with this case, including some that we were unable to circumvent
Keywords: PCIT; Foster Care; Child Maltreatment; Child Abuse; Foster Children; Disruptive Behavior.
Training foster parents in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy
McNeil, C. B., Herschell, A. D., Gurwitch, R. H., & Clemens-Mowrer, L. (2005). Training foster parents in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy. Education and Treatment of Children, 28, 182-196.
Abstract: Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an empirically supported, parent-training program designed to teach parents specific techniques to manage the behavior of children between the ages of two and seven exhibiting extreme disruptive behavior. Over 30 published studies (see Herschell, Calzada, Eyberg, & McNeil, 2002b for a review) have lent support to the efficacy of this clinic-based program. The current paper will highlight the need for disruptive behavior disorder treatment for children in foster care, discuss the appropriateness of applying PCIT to children in foster care, and report on the effectiveness of reported satisfaction with a modified procedure for training foster parents in PCIT skills.
Keywords: PCIT; Home Based Interventions; Foster Child Research; Foster Care; Disruptive Behavior Disorder Treatment.
Challenging children in kin verses nonkin foster care: Perceived costs and benefits to caregivers
Timmer, S. G., Sedlar, G., & Urquiza, A. (2004). Challenging children in kin verses nonkin foster care: Perceived costs and benefits to caregivers. Child Maltreatment, 9, 251-262.
Abstract: This study uses social exchange theory as a framework for examining 102 kin and 157 nonkin foster parents' perceptions of their foster children, their relationships with them, and their own functioning. The authors argue that these perceptions reflect perceived costs and benefits of parenting these children, which may influence their investment in them. All children in the study were referred to Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) for treatment of the children's behavior problems, participating with their foster parents. Analyses showed that nonkin caregivers rated their foster children's behavior problems as significantly more severe than kin caregivers but rated themselves as significantly less stressed. Analyses predicting early treatment termination showed that kin caregivers were more likely than nonkin caregivers to complete the course of treatment in PCIT, particularly if they reported elevated levels of parental distress. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for foster children's placement stability and long-term success.
Keywords: PCIT; Foster Care; Kinship Care; Foster Parent Functioning; Mental Health Treatment.
Infusing parent-child interaction therapy principles into community-based wraparound services: An evaluation of feasibility, child behavior problems, and staff sense of competence
Wallace, N. M., Quetsch, L. B., Robinson, C., McCoy, K., & McNeil, C. B. (2018). Infusing parent-child interaction therapy principles into community-based wraparound services: An evaluation of feasibility, child behavior problems, and staff sense of competence. ESLEVIER, 88, 567-581. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.04.007
Abstract: The current study examined the implementation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) adapted to address problem behaviors of children (ages 2–9) through a home-based service program (i.e., wraparound). The current adaptation of PCIT was implemented by community-based wraparound clinicians and compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Results indicated a significant drop in child behavior problems for children receiving PCIT-informed services compared to TAU. In addition, PCIT-informed clinicians significantly increased their sense of competence. Feasibility and future directions regarding integration and expansion of this approach are discussed.
Keywords: : PCIT; Home-Based Interventions; Parent-Child Relationship; Adaptation; Home-based Services; Model Adaptation Studies.
Home-based Parent-Child Therapy in low-income African American, Caucasian, and Latino families: A comparative examination of treatment outcomes
Gresl, B. L., Fox, R. A., & Fleischmann, A. (2014). Home-based Parent-Child Therapy in low-income African American, Caucasian, and Latino families: A comparative examination of treatment outcomes. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 36, 33-50.
Abstract: This study examined parent and child treatment outcomes for a home-based Parent-Child Therapy (PCT) program for 66 children from families living in poverty. African American, Caucasian, and Latino families were examined to determine if an evidence-based program would produce similar results across different ethnic groups. The results showed that caregivers across the three ethnic groups reported improved child challenging behavior, increased positive parent-child interactions, improved parental expectations, higher levels of nurturing, and less reliance on verbal and corporal punishment as a form of discipline. Practical implications for these results are discussed.
Keywords: PCIT; Home Based Interventions; International & Cultural Research; Low-Income; Behavior Problems; Latino; African American; Caucasian; Young Children; Poverty
A pilot study examining trainee treatment session fidelity when Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is implemented in community settings.
Travis JK, Brestan-Knight E. A pilot study examining trainee treatment session fidelity when Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is implemented in community settings. J Behav Health Serv Res. 2013 Jul;40(3):342-54
Abstract: Research supports the impact of empirically based treatments, such as Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), on producing positive treatment outcomes for clients. However, achieving outcomes in community settings that are similar to those found in research settings can be challenging, and little research has been conducted on how to best train community providers to implement PCIT with fidelity. This study assessed trainee implementation fidelity to the PCIT protocol in community settings. Session fidelity was reviewed for trainees using pre-established session integrity checklists and post hoc video review of key sessions. Analyses revealed that trainees maintained strong overall session fidelity, although fidelity percentages varied by session type and treatment phase. Results also highlight those session content items that are frequently left out by trainees during implementation. Implications of these findings, limitations, and future
directions for research and PCIT workshops and consultation are discussed.
Keywords: PCIT; General Outcome Studies; Community Settings; Community Providers; Session Fidelity; Session Integrity Checklist; Video Review.
Delivering Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in an urban community clinic
Budd, K. S., Hella, B., Bae, H., Meyerson, D. A., & Watkin, S. C. (2011). Delivering Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in an urban community clinic. Cognitive Behavioral Practice, 502-514.
Abstract: Extensive evidence supports the efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) for reducing behavior problems in young children; however, little is known about the use of PCIT in a community mental health center (CMHC). This paper provides four clinical case examples of families who were referred to and successfully completed PCIT in an urban CMHC. The families were ethnically and socioeconomically diverse and presented with a wide range of treatment concerns and needs (e.g., autism, severe maternal psychopathology, involvement in child protective services, and complex family configurations) in addition to disruptive behavior. Our data and clinical observations suggest that PCIT decreased behavior problems, improved parent-child interactions, and, in some cases, reduced parental stress, with differing levels of change across families. Overall, the cases demonstrate that PCIT can be transported into a CMHC, and they illustrate supplemental services or minor accommodations to the established treatment protocol used to address individual family needs. Issues regarding the balance between fidelity and flexibility in transporting PCIT to a community setting are discussed, and future research topics are recommended.
Keywords: PCIT; General Outcome Studies; Behavior Problems; Parent-child Relations; Community Mental Health; Preschool Children.
Treatment outcome for low socioeconomic status African American families in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A pilot study.
Fernandez, M. A., Butler, A. M., & Eyberg, S. M. (2011). Treatment outcome for low socioeconomic status African American families in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A pilot study. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 33, 32-48.
Abstract: This course and efficacy of parent-child interaction therpy (PCIT) were examined in 18 socioeconomically disadvantaged African American families of preschooler with disruptive behavior disorders. Mothers reported significant improvements in child disruptive behavior but not in maternal depressive symptoms or parenting stress. Attrition was 56%, most often occurring after pre-treatment assessment but before treatment began. Results suggest that PCIT may lead to positive behavior changes for disadvantaged young African American children when families complete treatment. Recruitment, engagement, and retention remain significant problems requiring further study. Reduction of parenting stress also requires study in this population.
Keywords: PCIT; Low-income; International & Cultural Studies; Attrition Studies; Clinical Disorders; African American Families; Disruptive Behavior Disorders; Oppositional Defiant Disorder; Parent Training; Parent-child.
A community mental health implementation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT)
Lyon, A. R., & Budd, K. S. (2010). A community mental health implementation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 654-668.
Abstract: : Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) has been identified as an evidence-based practice in the treatment of externalizing behavior among preschool-aged youth. Although considerable research has established its efficacy, little is known about the effectiveness of PCIT when delivered in a community mental health setting with underserved youth. The current pilot study investigated an implementation of PCIT with primarily low-socioeconomic status, urban, ethnic minority youth and families. The families of 14 clinically referred children aged 2-7 years and demonstrating externalizing behavior completed PCIT initial assessment, and 12 began treatment. Using standard PCIT completion criteria, 4 families completed treatment; and these families demonstrated clinically significant change on observational and self-report measures of parent behavior, parenting stress, and child functioning. Although treatment dropouts demonstrated more attenuated changes, observational data and parent-reported problems across sessions indicated some improvements with lower doses of intervention. Attendance and adherence data, referral source, barriers to treatment participation, and treatment satisfaction across completers and dropouts are discussed to highlight differences between the current sample and prior PCIT research. The findings suggest that PCIT can be delivered successfully in an underserved community sample when families remain in treatment, but that premature dropout limits treatment effectiveness. The findings suggest potential directions for research to improve uptake of PCIT in a community service setting.
Keywords: PCIT; Low-income; Disruptive Behavior; Community Mental Health; Engagement; Model Adaptation Studies.
Introducing and evaluating Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in a system of care
Franco, E., Soler, R. E., & McBride, M. (2005). Introducing and evaluating Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in a system of care. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics in North America, 14, 351-366
Abstract: A growing body of knowledge exists about what works for children with mental health needs. There is a paucity of literature to describe the experiences of service providers or service-providing agencies as they work toward implementing evidence-based practices or provide an understanding of their effectiveness in "real-world" settings. No research exists that examines the effectiveness of specific treatment modalities with children with severe emotional disturbance who participate in comprehensive mental health service systems (systems of care). This article describes the experiences that a community mental health agency and an evaluation team had when implementing parent-child interaction therapy, an evidence-based practice, in a system of care.
Keywords: PCIT; Clinical Disorders; Externalizing or Disruptive Behaviors.
Differences in mothers' and fathers' readiness for change in parent training
Niec, L. N., Barnett, M. L., Gering, C. L., Triemstra, K., & Solomon, D. T. (2015). Differences in mothers' and fathers' readiness for change in parent training. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 37, 224-235.
Abstract: We investigated readiness for change (RFC), a construct that may contribute to the discrepancies between fathers’ and mothers’ rates of participation in behavioral parent training. One hundred and twenty fathers and mothers of 2- to 7-year-old children with conduct problems completed standardized measures of RFC, child behavior problems, and parent stress as part of an intake to a parent-child interaction therapy clinic. Fathers reported less readiness for change, less confidence in their ability to make changes, were more defensive about the need to change, and saw treatment as less important than mothers. Results suggest that if clinicians match parent training interventions to mothers’ readiness, fathers may be left behind.
Keywords: : PCIT; Parental Factors; Behavioral Parent Training (BPT); Childhood Conduct Problems; Father Involvement; Parent-child Interaction Therapy; Readiness for Change (RFC); Father-Child Research.
Revisiting the accuracy hypothesis in families of young children with conduct problems
Jane G. Querido, Sheila M. Eyberg & Stephen R. Boggs (2001) Revisiting the Accuracy Hypothesis in Families of Young Children With Conduct Problems, Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 30:2, 253-261, DOI:
Abstract: Revisited the accuracy hypothesis in an examination of the relation between maternal depressive symptomatology and child conduct problems. All data were gathered as part of the pretreatment assessment in an outcome study of families with clinic-referred children with conduct problems (age 3 to 6). The mothers varied in their depressive symptomatology, from not at all symptomatic to severely symptomatic. Correlations indicated that with increasing depressive symptomatology, mothers (N = 97) displayed a higher rate of physical negative behaviors towards their child and reported more child conduct problems. Regression analyses revealed that at the lowest levels of maternal depressive symptomatology there was a discrepancy between mothers' reports of child behavior problems and child deviant behaviors observed during mother-child interaction. In contrast, at higher levels of depression, mothers' reports of child behavior were consistent with laboratory observations of their child's behavior. These findings provide evidence to support the accuracy hypothesis in reference to mothers who display a high degree of depressive symptomatology, but the results also call into question the validity of maternal report in families with children with conduct problems.
Keywords: Conduct disorders in children, Mental depression, Psychology of mothers.
Maternal ADHD: Parent-child interactions and relations with child disruptive behavior
Zisser, A. R., & Eyberg, S. M. (2012). Maternal ADHD: Parent-child interactions and relations with child disruptive behavior. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 34, 33-52.
Abstract: This study examined how ADHD symptoms in mothers of children with ADHD relate to their behavior during parent-child interactions and to their children's disruptive behavior. Findings indicated that mothers' retrospective self-ratings of ADHD symptoms were related to their present negativity during parent-led play. Mothers' self-ratings of current inattentive symptoms were related to their impatience during child-led play. Maternal ADHD symptoms were also related to their ratings of their children's ADHD and oppositional-defiant behaviors. Identifying relations between maternal psychopathology, such as ADHD symptomatology, and behaviors during parent-child interactions may yield clues to additional parent behavioral changes that would enhance treatment outcomes for young children with ADHD.
Keywords: PCIT; Parental Factors; Clinical Disorders; Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; Child; Disruptive Behavior; Parent-child Interactions.
The effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with depressive mothers: The changing relationship as the agent of individual change
Timmer, S. G., Ho, L. K. L., Urquiza, A. J., Zebell, N. M., y Garcia, E., & Boys, D. (2011). The effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with depressive mothers: The changing relationship as the agent of individual change. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 42, 406-423.
Abstract: This study uses a multi-method approach to investigate the effectiveness of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in reducing children’s behavior problems when parents report clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Participants were 132 children, 2–7 years of age, and their biological mothers, who either reported low (N = 78) or clinical levels of depressive symptoms (N = 54). Results showed that depressive mothers were likely to report more severe child behavior problems than non-depressive mothers at the pre-treatment assessment, but that depressive mothers reported greater reductions in child behavior problems than non-depressive mothers from pre- to post-treatment. The two groups showed similar levels of observed interaction quality at the pre-treatment assessment (i.e., parent and child emotional availability and parent verbalization patterns) and similar improvements in interaction quality from pre- to post-treatment. The implications of the findings for clinical practice were discussed.
Keywords: PCIT; Parental Factors; General Outcomes Studies; Maternal Depression; Treatment Outcomes.
Problem-solving interactions between mothers and children
Hughes, J. C., Brestan, E. V., Christens, B. D., Klinger, L. J., & Valle, L. A. (2004). Problem-solving interactions between mothers and children. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 26, 1-16.
Abstract: The central goal of this study was to gather information on how mothers and children solve problems. The sample consisted of 38 mother-child dyads recruited from the community. Children were between the ages of 8 and 12. Each mother and child completed self-report questionnaires and participated in a five-minute problem-solving task during which the dyad was videotaped as they discussed a family problem. Results indicate that mothers are more active participants than children in a problem-solving situation and that girls are significantly less engaged than boys in problem-solving tasks with a parent. Several of the coded problem-solving variables are significantly related to parenting stress. Future study might include live coding of observed problem-solving variables to make the findings more applicable to clinical practice.
Keywords: PCIT; Child-Adult Relationship Enhancement – CARE; Problem-solving; Parent-child Interaction; Behavior Observation; Maternal Ratings; Gender Differences; Engagement; Parenting Stress.
How annoying is it? Defining parental tolerance for child misbehavior
Brestan, E. V., Eyberg, S. M., Algina, J., Johnson, S. B., & Boggs, S. R. (2003). How annoying is it? Defining parental tolerance for child misbehavior. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 25, 1-15.
Abstract: Defines parental tolerance for misbehavior and provides reliability and validity data for two newly developed parent report measures of tolerance, the Child Rearing Inventory (CRI) and the AnnoyingBehavior Inventory (ABI). Data were collected from 262 primary care-takers of children between the ages of 3 and 10 years, of whom one-third
were African American. Examination of the internal consistency and test-retest data for the CRI and the ABI provided evidence of adequate reliability. Scores on the CRI and ABI were unrelated to social desirability, socioeconomic status, and race. Parental tolerance for misbehavior is associated with parental perceptions of their child’s behavior as problematic
and child treatment status. Results of this study provide preliminary evidence of good reliability and present initial validity of the CRI and the ABI.
Keywords: PCIT; Parental Factors.
Antecedents of coercive interactions in physically abusive mother-child dyads
Timmer, S. G., Borrego, J., Jr., & Urquiza, A. J. (2002). Antecedents of coercive interactions in physically abusive mother-child dyads. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17, 836-853.
Abstract: : In this study, we investigate the possibility that parents’ questions lead to coercive interaction patterns in abusive versus nonabusive mother-child dyads. The interaction patterns of 15 abusive and 15 nonabusive mother-child dyads were examined as they performed structured play tasks in a clinic setting. We used sequential analyses to examine how children responded to their parents’ questions compared to neutral comments and how parents responded to their children’s answers versus their failure to answer. Abusive and nonabusive parents asked similar numbers of questions, and abused and nonabused children had similarly high response rates to those questions. However, results showed that when children did not answer questions, abusive parents were more likely to give commands and less likely to make neutral comments than nonabusive parents. Clinical implications for working with physically abusive parent-child relationshipsare also discussed.
Keywords: : PCIT; Child Maltreatment.
Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children
Querido, J. G., Warner, T. D., & Eyberg, S. M. (2002). Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 31, 272-277
Abstract: Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers 3-to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parent's endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style.
Keywords: PCIT; International & Cultural Research; African American; African American Families; Preschool Children; Authoritarian Parenting; Permissive Parenting; Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory.
A test of the parenting alliance theory
Bearss, K. E., & Eyberg, S. (1998). A test of the parenting alliance theory. Early Education & Development, 9, 179-185.
Abstract: Parenting alliance is assumed to be the key element in the marital relationship accounting for the sometimes-found convariation of marital adjustment and child behavior problems. This study examined the core tenet of the parenting alliance theory using the newly developed Parenting Alliance Inventory (PAI). The sample consisted of 53 mothers of children between the ages 2 and 15 seen at a pediatric outpatient clinic. Scores from the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) were correlated with both the Marital Adjustment Test (MAT) and the PAI in order to test the hypothesis that the relationship of child behavior problems with the parenting alliance is stronger than with general marital adjustment. Results showed a significant and moderate negative correlation between the PAI and the ECBI, even when controlling for the influence of the MAT, versus a nonsignificant, negligible correlation between the MAT and the ECBI, Results support the construct validity and utility of the PAI as a concise measure of parenting alliance.
Keywords: Behavior Problems, Child Behavior, Child Rearing, Marital Satisfaction, Mothers, Parent Child Relationship, Parenting Skills, Parents, Spouses, Theories.
Parenting stress in mothers of young children with oppositional defiant disorder and other severe behavior problems
Ross, C. N., Blanc, H. M., & McNeil, C. B. (1998). Parenting stress in mothers of young children with oppositional defiant disorder and other severe behavior problems. Child Study Journal, 28, 93-110.
Abstract: : A study examined parenting stress levels in mothers of young children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and other severe behavior problems. Participants were 92 primarily European American middle and lower income families with a child aged 2–8 years who was assigned to the diagnostic category of ODD only, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) only, dual diagnosis, or multiple diagnosis. Results indicated that extremely high levels of parenting stress were related to raising a young child with ODD and other severe disruptive behavior problems. The highest parenting stress levels seemed to be connected to multiple followed by dual diagnosis children. Although highly stressful, single diagnosis groups of AD/HD only and ODD only children did not differ on any measures of parenting stress. The results highlighted the link between parenting stress and ODD and suggested that early identification and intervention are as important for ODD children as for AD/HD children.
Keywords: PCIT; Clinical Disorders; Oppositional Defiant Disorder.
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Parents' perceptions of untreated siblings
Brestan, E. V., Eyberg, S. M., Boggs, S. R., & Algina, J. (1997). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Parents' perceptions of untreated siblings. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 19, 13-28
Abstract: This study evaluates parents' perception of the generalization of treatment effects to untreated siblings following parent-child interaction therapy with oppositional preschoolers and their parents. Participants were 30 referred families randomly assigned to an immediate treatment or waitlist control group who completed parent rating scale measures of disruptive behavior at intake and 16 weeks later. Improvements in the parents' report of referred children's behavior were adequate to test treatment generalization to siblings. Relative to siblings in the waitlist control group, fathers rated the behavior problems of untreated siblings in the treatment group as occurring less frequently, and mothers rated the untreated siblings' behavior as less problematic. This experimental demonstration of parental perception of treatment generalization to untreated siblings may be important for maintenance of treatment gains for the referred child.
Keywords: PCIT; Parental Factors
Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior
Baumrind, D. (1996). Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Child Development, 37, 887-907.
Abstract: Three models of parental control--permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative--are described and contrasted. Pertinent findings concerning the effects on the child behavior of component disciplinary practices are reviewed. With these and other findings as the basis for discussion, several propositions concerning the effects on child behavior of parental control variables are critically examined. Finally, the relation between freedom and control is exgenerate in the child, behavior which while well socialized is also willful and independent.
Keywords: PCIT; Parental Factors.
Relationships between maternal parenting stress and child disruptive behavior
Eyberg, S. M., Boggs, S. R., & Rodriguez, C. M. (1992). Relationships between maternal parenting stress and child disruptive behavior. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 14, 1-9
Abstract: This study examined statistically the differential relationships among child domain and parent domain scores of the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) and child disruptive behaviors as measured by the problem and intensity scales of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI). As were 165 children ages 2-10 referred for psychological evaluation. The PSI child domain and parent domain scores were significantly correlated with the ECBI intensity and problem scores and, as hypothesized, child domain scores were significantly more highly correlated with ECBI scores than were parent domain scores. Correlations of the ECBI problem and intensity scores with the PSI were not significantly different. In contrast to a previous study, no differences were found between single- and two-parent families in the number of disruptive child behaviors reported as problems. Analyses of sample differences suggested that, as the frequency of children's disruptive behaviors increases, spouse support may be less effective in buffering maternal parenting stress.
Keywords: PCIT; Parental Factors; Parenting Stress Index; PSI.
The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use
Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11, 56-95.
Abstract: An overview of the Family Socialization and Developmental Competence longitudinal program of research (FSP) is following by a presentation of the hypotheses and finding pertaining to family patterns as determinants of adolescent competence, and of types of adolescent substance users. Data include clusters derived from comprehensive ratings of parents and their children completed independently within-- and across-time periods at ages 4, 9, and 15 years. At Time 3 (T3), the sample included 139 adolescents and their parents from a predominantly affluent, well-educated, Caucasian population. Parenting types were identified that differ on the bases of commitment and balance of demandingness and responsiveness. Authoritative parents who are highly demanding and highly responsive were remarkable successful in protecting their adolescents from problem drug use, and in generating competence. Authoriative upbringing, although sufficient, is not a necessary condition to produce competent children. Casual recreational drug use was not associated with pathological attributes, either precursive or concurrent, although nonusers showed an increment in competence from Time 2 (T2) to Time 3 (T3).
Keywords: PCIT; Parental Factors.
Mother-child interaction in home and laboratory settings
Kniskern, J. R., Robinson, E. A., & Mitchell, S. K. (1983). Mother-child interaction in home and laboratory settings. Child Study Journal, 13, 23-39.
Abstract: This study reexamined the effects on mother-child interaction of four environmental variables: location of the interaction, presences of a sibling, task structure, and day of observation. The subjects were 40 mother-child pairs (mean child age was 4.9 years). Results indicated that task structure and sibling presence exerted large and systematic effects, while location had a minimal impact on behavior. Children compiled 91% in child directed play, 86% in parent directed play, and 71% in clean up and mothers engaged in 60% less interaction in clean up than in play. In the presence of a sibling, mothers engaged in less conversation, give less praise, and issued fewer commands than when alone with one child. Children were more non-compliant and mothers used more physical restraint when mother-child pairs observed in the laboratory were compared with those observed at home. There were no significant effects of day of observation on behavior authors suggested that the validity of laboratory analogs be evaluated in light of specific research goals.
Keywords: : PCIT; Home Based Interventions; Home Observations; Laboratory Observations; Child Compliance; Location Observations.